Vol 15, No 1 (2010)

Articles

Osobennosti khirurgicheskogo lecheniya nemelkokletochnogo raka legkogo III stadii

Chernykh A.V., Polotskiy B.E., Laktionov K.K.

Abstract

The paper analyzes the results of treatment in 142 patients radically operated on for Stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Among them, there were 116 patients who had undergone systematic mediastinal lymphodissection (SMLD) and 26 patients who had typical surgery without SMLD. After SMLD, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals were 95.9, 50, and 30% versus 81, 10, and 5% after typical surgery, respectively. After SMLD and typical surgery, the median survival was 965 (23 months) and 432 (14 months) days, respectively.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):4-8
pages 4-8 views

Radikal'naya abdominal'naya trakhelektomiya

Novikova E.G., Antipov V.A., Ronina E.A., Novikova O.V., Balakhontseva O.S.

Abstract

The paper presents the experience of the Gynecological Cancer Department, P. A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. In October 2005 to March 2009, modified radical abdominal trachelectomy (RAT) was performed in 47 of the 54 patients diagnosed as having stages IA1 to IIA cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU). The patients' mean age was 33.2 years (range 22-45 years). The elusive surgical volume modified to extended uterine extirpation with ovarian transposition or with appendage removal was required in 7 cases. The follow-up after RAT lasted 1 to 41 months (median 15 months). Two (4.2%) recurrences of RAT were found, which was comparable with the classical treatment as Wertheim's operation.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):8-14
pages 8-14 views

Tartratrezistentnaya kislaya fosfataza osteoklastov (TRAP-5b) v syvorotke krovi u patsientov s pervichnymi opukholyami kostey

Derzhavin V.A., Sergeeva N.S., Teplyakov V.V., Marshutina N.V., Solokhina M.P., Machak G.N.

Abstract

The purpose of the ivestigation was to study whether osteoclast-derived serum tartrate-resistant acid (TRAP-5b) can be used as a tumor marker in the presence of primary bone neoplasms. The study included 34 patients with primary bone malignancies (Group 1), 35 with benign tumors and traumatic bone fractures (Group 2), and 38 apparently healthy donors (Group 3). All the groups were age-matched and gender-matched. TRAP-5b levels were studied by enzyme immunoassay. The low (less than 3 U/l) serum concentration of TRAP-5b was found in 39, 31, and 3% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The TRAP-5b levels exceeding 6.0 U/l were seen in 1 examinee from Group 3, in 1 patient from Group 2 and in 35% of Group 1 patients. The highest concentrations (7.74±0.73 U/l) of TRAP-5b were detected in patients with osteolytic bone destruction, the least (4.48±0.92 U/l) in mixed one.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):14-16
pages 14-16 views

Immunogistokhimicheskaya kharakteristika i kriterii prognoza sarkomy Yuinga/PNET

Bulanov D.V., Makhson A.N.

Abstract

A group of high-grade small round-cell neuroectodermal tumors developing in soft tissues and bones has been recently identified in children and young adults on the basis of the data of classical morphology and the results obtained by new techniques (cell culturing, molecular genetics, immunohistochemistry). To denote these tumors, the term "primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumor" (PNET) has been proposed. The problem is of great practical importance in the differential diagnosis of formally similar malignancies (lymphoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, small-cell variant of osteosarcoma), this makes PNET and Ewing's sarcoma be histogenetically and clinicodiagnostically of special scientific and practical interest.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):17-19
pages 17-19 views

Kachestvo zhizni bol'nykh mestnorasprostranennym i generalizovannym rakom predstatel'noy zhelezy pri razlichnykh variantakh gormonal'noy terapii

Sokov D.G., Kochetov A.G., Kim R.V., Rusakov I.G.

Abstract

The authors evaluated the impact of various hormonal therapy regimens on quality of life in patients with prostate cancer and recorded adverse reactions. They assessed the quality of life by the WHO ECOG scale, the impact of the therapy on pain syndrome by the visual pain scale, the Karnovsky scale, evaluated the impact of the therapy on potency and libido, and recorded the presence and absence of side effects. Bone mineral density was estimated in all patients by densitometry.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):19-22
pages 19-22 views

Aktivnost' proteasom i soderzhanie rostovykh faktorov pri rake pochki, mochevogo puzyrya i endometriya

Spirina L.V., Kondakova I.V., Usynin E.A., Kolomiets L.A., Vintizenko S.I., Bochkareva N.V., Chernyshova A.L.

Abstract

The proteasome system has been ascertained to play a key role in the development of cancer of the kidney, urinary bladder, and endometrium, which is likely to be linked to the regulation of tissue growth factor levels. Decreased proteasome activity in a renal tissue tumor versus normal tissue is accompanied by activated neoangiogenesis, as suggested by the higher content of vascular endothelial growth factor. In bladder cancer, the activity of tumor enzymes did not differ from their activity in the adjacent tissue. In endometrial cancer tissue, that of proteasome was increased as compared with that in the normal tissue. The content of insulin-like growth factor 1 in the endometrial cancer tissue was associated with the activity of proteasome in the normal tissue.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):23-25
pages 23-25 views

Diagnosticheskoe znachenie immunoekspressii galektina-3, NVME-1 i tsitokeratina-19 v opukholyakh shchitovidnoy zhelezy razlichnogo potentsiala zlokachestvennosti

Abrosimov A.Y., Dvinskikh N.Y.

Abstract

The authors have studied the value of the immunoexpression of galectin-3, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 in the diagnosis of 17 benign (follicular adenomas) tumors of the thyrod, 23 malignant tumors (carcinomas of follicular cell origin), and 12 tumors of uncertain malignant potential. The diagnosis based on the analysis of the immuniexpression of galectin-3 and its combination with HBME-1 showed high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (96, 88, and 93%, respectively). The tumors of uncertain malignant potential were heterogeneous in the expression of galectin-3 and HBME-1. Coexpression of the above markers may suggest the malignant potential of individual neoplasms included in this group.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):26-31
pages 26-31 views

Diagnosticheskaya sektoral'naya rezektsiya i otdalennye rezul'taty lecheniya pri rake molochnoy zhelezy

Popova T.N., Afanas'eva S.S.

Abstract

The paper comparatively analyzes the morphological structure of tumors and long-term results of treating 314 patients with breast cancer. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) patients in whom its morphological diagnosis was intraoperatively established during diagnostic cross-sectional resection, by subsequently increasing the surgical volume up to the radical one; 2) those in whom the morphological diagnosis was made during a planned histological study and the radical surgical intervention was performed in the delayed order; 3) patients in whom the diagnosis was verified prior to surgery. The patients with local regional extent of the tumor process showed a relationship of 5-year survival to the interval of a diagnostic cross-sectional resection to a radical surgical intervention.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):32-35
pages 32-35 views

Sravnitel'nyy analiz rezul'tatov luchevogo i khimioluchevogo lecheniya mestnorasprostranennogo raka gortanoglotki

Rasulov A.A.

Abstract

Radiation (telegamma-therapy (TGT)) and chemoradiation (MPF + leucovorin (methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil + platidiam + leucovorin) treatments were comparatively analyzed in patients with Stages III-IV laryngopharyngeal cancer. Multidrug therapy + TGT were shown to be the method of choice when the patients refused to have combination treatment or when there were contraindications to surgery: 5-year overall survival was 46.4% versus 22.3% after TGT. Following the latter, the quality of life was significantly worse than that after chemoradiation therapy: 100% activity persisted only in 9.6 and 53.8% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. This was due to the low indirect therapeutic effect of standard TGT and an early recurrence after it - 60% of the recurrences were detected within the first year following TGT while after chemoradiation, 66.7% of them occurred following 12 months or more.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):35-37
pages 35-37 views

Lechenie bol'nykh luchevym ekssudativnym perikarditom

Kursova L.V., Ragulin Y.A., Pasov V.V., Ivanova I.N.

Abstract

Radiation exudative pericarditis is a rare (up to 24%) complication of radiation and combination treatment for lymphogranulomatosis and lung cancer. As of now, preference is given to drug management of patients with exudative and adhesive-exudative pericarditis. The experience in treating 27 patients with radiation exudative pericarditis has shown that combined drug treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs from different groups, diuretics, and metabolic and vascular agents results in a reduction or disappearance of fluid in the pericardial cavity in 44% of cases, elimination of the signs of heart failure, improvement in central and systemic hemodynamic parameters, and an increase in the quality of life in patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):37-41
pages 37-41 views

Monitoring meropriyatiy po profilaktike, diagnostike i lecheniyu zlokachestvennykh novoobrazovaniy v sub\"ektakh Rossiyskoy Federatsii

Chissov V.I., Starinskiy V.V., Aleksandrova L.M., Petrova G.V., Gretsova O.P., Kharchenko N.V., Savinov V.A., Lutkovskiy A.S., Bylkova E.S., Boriseeva N.V., Privezentseva L.B., Blinova G.Y., Chupryna E.G.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):41-43
pages 41-43 views

Vozmozhnosti lekarstvennoy protivoopukholevoy terapii raka nosoglotki

Bolotina L.V., Koroleva L.A., Kornietskaya A.L.

Abstract

In patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the traditional treatment is radiation and chemoradiation therapy. At the beginning of the therapy, a significant local extent of a tumor (T3-4N1-3) is detectable in more than 80% of patients. Chemotherapy is a promising approach to enhancing the efficiency of treatment in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which further allows the performance of radiotherapy. The authors have used induction therapy to realize a combination treatment plan.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):44-45
pages 44-45 views

Gialiniziruyushchaya trabekulyarnaya opukhol' shchitovidnoy zhelezy

Mal'kov P.G., Morozova M.A., Grinevich V.N., Abrosimov A.Y., Minasyan A.M.

Abstract

The paper describes a case of thyroid hyalinizing trabecular tumor in a 55-year-old woman. Cytological examination of her fine-needle biopsy specimen showed separately lying tumor cells with intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions. Its cytological study determined the trabeculoalveolar structures formed by tumor cells, the intercellular space exhibited a homogenous eosinophilic matter that yielded a positive Schick's test, laminated calcinates that mimick psammoma bodies. Immunophenotyping of the neoplasm revealed a positive reaction with antibodies to thyroglobulin, a negative reaction to galectin-3 and cytokeratin-19, and membrane Ki-67 expression, which suggests the low malignancy potential.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):46-48
pages 46-48 views

Rak parashchitovidnoy zhelezy

Svetitskiy P.V., Nepomnyashchaya E.M., Magerramov R.K.

Abstract

The paper describes a case of parathyroid cancer in a 48-year-old male in whom the disease started with hoarse voice and lumbar pain. Examination revealed a tumor onto the posterolateral surface of the thyroid, paralysis of the half of the larynx, osteolysis in the pelvic bones and vertebral column. General blood and urine analysis and the blood levels of thyroid hormones and calcium were in the normal range whereas that of parathyroid hormone was high. Hemithyroidectomy extending to the right isthmus and the presenting tumor was performed. Parathyroid cancer was morphologically verified. The postoperative period was smooth; primary intention healing occurred in the wound. The patient was discharged from the hospital in a satisfactory condition to be followed up by an endocrinologist and an oncologist.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):48-50
pages 48-50 views

Sovremennye printsipy lecheniya raka pryamoy kishki

Sidorov D.V., Vashakmadze L.A.

Abstract

The present overview is dedicated to the current principles of surgical and combination treatment for rectal cancer. Basic approaches to choosing a treatment method and policy for early (T1-2N0) and locally advanced (T3-4 and/ or N1) rectal cancer are described. The role of the current chemoradiotherapy as a factor that reduces the frequency of local recurrences and increases the number of sphincter-sparing operations is considered. Great emphasis is laid on the role of a pathomorphologist in the assessing the quality of surgical intervention on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic studies. An integrated assessment of the factors that influence prognosis and quality of life in patients with rectal cancer is given; these include total mesorectumectomy, nerve-sparing surgery, circular resection edge, and extended lateral lymphadenectomy.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):52-54
pages 52-54 views

Sovremennye tendentsii v khirurgicheskom lechenii obturatsionnoy tolstokishechnoy neprokhodimosti opukholevogo geneza

Alekperov S.F., Pugaev A.V., Achkasov E.E., Kalachev O.A., Volkov V.S., Posudnevskiy V.I.

Abstract

The paper describes the evolution of the problem by taking into account various tactical approaches from minimum surgery to resolve obstruction at the first and radical stages of treatment to emergency and urgent radical operations at its later stages. It gives different arguments in favor of possible tactical decisions and an explanation of the existing wide scatter of the indicators of respectability and operability at different hospitals. The authors show that video-assisted laparoscopy, endoscopic recanalization and stenting in the area of colonic tumor stenosis may be used as preparation of patients for radical surgical treatment.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(1):54-57
pages 54-57 views

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