Vol 15, No 3 (2010)

Articles

Endobronkhial'naya khirurgiya i fotodinamicheskaya terapiya pri zlokachestvennykh opukholyakh trakhei i bronkhov

Sokolov V.V., Telegina L.V., Trakhtenberg A.K., Pikin O.V., Osipova N.A., Boyko A.V., Frank G.A., Belous T.A.

Abstract

The authors present their data on endobronchial treatment of 374 patients with malignant stenotic tumors of the trachea and bronchi (n = 150; 187 tumors), central lung cancer (CLC) (n = 119; 162 tumors), benign tumors (n = 47), and scarring stenosis (n = 58). A complex of diagnostic studies was developed, which comprised video-assisted high-resolution endoscopy, fluorescence and NBI bronchoscopy, endosonography, spiral computed tomography, and a morphological study. Indications for various endoscopic treatment options were defined. The basic techniques for tumor removal were electrocoagulation, Nd:YAG-laser thermodestruction (1984-1994), photodynamic therapy, and argon-plasma coagulation (1992-2008). In patients with stenotic tumors, complete or partial luminal recovery could be achieved in 96% of cases just after endoscopic treatment. Endoscopic treatment as a preparatory stage was performed in 24 (16%) patients before open surgery and in 81 (54%) patients prior to radiotherapy. In CLC, complete tumor regression was achieved in 89% and in 100% when tumors sized under 1 cm along the plane. A follow-up lasted as long as 8 years. A recurrence was diagnosed in 175 of cases; metachronic CLC was found in 21%. The developed endoscopic treatment options can be occasionally regarded as the only possible treatment modality or as an alternative to surgical treatment.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):4-9
pages 4-9 views

Tsitologicheskiy metod v vyyavlenii metastaticheskogo porazheniya limfaticheskikh uzlov

Volchenko N.N., Gladunova Z.D., Slavnova E.N., Ermolaeva A.G., Mel'nikova V.Y.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to define the capacities of cytology in the identification of a metastaic lymph node lesion. The investigators analyzed 6794 lymph nodes (5206 fine-needle biopsy specimens and 1588 scrapes and imprints) from the patients operated on at the P. A. Herzen Moscow Research Institute of Oncological Studies. Cytological specimens were stained using the modified Pappenheim procedure (azur-eosin mixtures). The results of the cytological study were compared with those of the planned histological lymph node study. Overall, the accuracy of the cytological technique was 99%; false-negative and false-positive results were 0.8 and 0.2%, respectively. The accuracy of intraoperative cytological diagnosis of a metastatic lymph node lesion was 99.2%. The cytological study of lymph nodes is a simple, accessible, and reliable morphological diagnostic method. Errors may be made in cases of micrometastases, sinus histiocytosis. Difficulties may arise in the differential diagnosis of tumor cells and inflammatory elements.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):9-12
pages 9-12 views

Sravnitel'naya kliniko-diagnosticheskaya znachimost' nekotorykh serologicheskikh opukholeassotsiirovannykh markerov dlya razlichnykh gistologicheskikh tipov raka legkogo

Marshutina N.V., Sergeeva N.S., Trakhtenberg A.K., Parilova N.K., Solokhina M.P., Vursol D.A., Sergeeva V.S.

Abstract

The authors selected a combination of serological tumor-associated markers for each histological type of tumors to enhance the sensitivity of clarifying laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of patients with lung cancer (LC). The serum levels of carcinogenic embryonic antigen (CEA), SCC, Cyfra 21-1, and ProGRP were studied in 57 primary patients with Stages I-IV LC of various histological types (squamous-cell and small-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma), in 12 patients with noncancer lung diseases, and in 13 healthy individuals. The highest sensitivity was demonstrated by the combined determination of Cyfra 21-1 and SCC for squamous-cell LC (88.2%) and that of CEA and Cyfra 21-1 for lung adenocarcinoma (57.1%). On a small sample of patients, the new serological marker ProGRP showed not only a high sensitivity (75%) for small-cell LC, but also a high specificity (94.3%) for non-small-cell LC. These results agree with few data in the foreign literature and suggest that the marker should be used for the specifying differential diagnosis of small-cell LC and the monitoring of patients with type of LC.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):13-16
pages 13-16 views

Tsitogeneticheskie izmeneniya v limfotsitakh perifericheskoy krovi v otsenke effektivnosti lecheniya bol'nykh s osteogennoy sarkomoy

Polatova D.S., Gafur-Akhunov M.A., Gil'dieva M.S.

Abstract

The baseline cytogenetic examination of patients with osteogenic sarcoma (OS) revealed specific and nonspecific chromosomal aberrations that involved the count of hypo-, hyperaneuploid, and polyploid cells with small double chromosomes, unstable chromosomal anomalies. The efficiency of treatment of patients with OS was comparatively evaluated in relation to the type of therapy and the baseline level of chromosomal anomalies. The therapeutic effect may be predicted from the total count of cells with chromosomal aberrations.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):16-18
pages 16-18 views

Otsenka obshchetoksicheskikh svoystv preparata geksasens v eksperimente

Pankratov A.A., Venediktova Y.B., Andreeva T.A., Yakubovskaya R.I., Raykhlin N.T.

Abstract

The systemic toxic and local irritant effects of the new drug Hexasens used for the fluorescence diagnosis of malignancies were studied on small laboratory animals: mice, rats, and rabbits. The acute and chronic toxicities of the agent were investigated when orally used and its local irritant effect was examined when intravesicularly injected. The conducted studies indicated that Hexasens was a lowly toxic pharmacological agent. Its oral administration in rats at a 5% concentration or less produced no local irritant effect on the esophagus (esophagospasm). Intravesicular injection of Hexasens in rabbits at a 0.01% concentration (containing 1.0 mg of the agent in 10 ml of an injectable solution) or less exerted no local irritant effect on the urinary bladder mucosa.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):19-21
pages 19-21 views

Effektivnost' i perenosimost' kombinatsiy aranozy s tsisplatinom i topotekanom v eksperimente

Pokrovskiy V.S., Lesnaya N.A., Romanenko V.I., Treshchalina E.M.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a trial of aranosa (Ar) combinations with topotecan (T) and cisplatin (P) (TP, TAr, PAr, TPAr) used against Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). A triple consecutive administration scheme in doses of 0.-5.0 mg/kg (T), 2.5-3.0 mg/kg (P), and 100-200 mg/kg (Ar) was used. Synergism was shown by the combinations TAr, PAr, and TPAr with their satisfactory tolerance. The combinations TAr and TPAr versus T monotherapy are the standard of second-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer and the combination TP significantly more effective and comparable in hematological toxicity.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):22-24
pages 22-24 views

Otsenka perenosimosti endolimfaticheskoy i sistemnoy khimioterapii v kombinirovannom lechenii rezektabel'nogo raka zheludka

Slugarev V.V., Gamayunov S.V., Terent'ev I.G., Denisenko A.N.

Abstract

Treatment for gastric cancer remains to be an unsolved problem of modern oncology. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the safety and tolerance of multimodality treatment for operable gastric cancer with endolymphatic chemotherapy being supplemented in the early postoperative period, and systemic multidrug therapy. The authors conclude that combination drug treatment is accompanied by few local and systemic complications; endolymphatic polychemotherapy does not increase the frequency and severity of postoperative complications. Complex therapy performed by the chosen demonstrated safety and a good tolerability.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):25-28
pages 25-28 views

Zlokachestvennye novoobrazovaniya u bol'nykh leproy

Anokhina V.V., Urlyapova N.G.

Abstract

Malignancy morbidity and mortality were retrospectively analyzed in patients with leprosy in 1993 to 2008. Due to effective antileprotic therapy, leprotic patients were shown to survive to elderly and old ages, which resulted in an increase in the rate of malignancies (primarily of the skin) and brought patients with leprosy closer to the general population in terms of the risk and pattern of oncopathology.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):29-31
pages 29-31 views

Opyt organizatsii skriningovykh meropriyatiy po ranney diagnostike raka molochnoy zhelezy v usloviyakh severnykh regionov Rossii

Zakharova N.A., Kotlyarov E.V.

Abstract

The objective of the investigation was to study the results of the organizational structure of screening measures to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer, which was commissioned in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District in 2007. A total of 117,465 women were examined using mammography and ultrasonography over 1.5 years; 63,924 (20.4% of the women in the age group of over 20 years) subjects were studied within the screening program. During screenings, the incidence of breast cancer increased from 28.7 to 35.5% in the district in 2007 (versus 2006). In the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous and Surgut District, the breast cancer detection rate was generally 0.45% of the total number of screenings amongst women over 40 years of age.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):31-31
pages 31-31 views

Osobennosti zabolevaemosti zlokachestvennymi novoobrazovaniyami organov pishchevareniya v respublike Uzbekistan

Assesorova Y.Y.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an analysis of digestive malignancy morbidity rates in the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2003-2007. The morbidity rates in different years of the observed period were 20.8 to 23.2 per 100,000 population. The first three major digestive cancers included those of the stomach (6.6-6.9 per 100,000), esophagus (3.9-5.3 per 100,000), and the liver (3.2-3.4 per 100,000). The morbidity from digestive malignancies by their sites is given in different regions of Uzbekistan
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):33-33
pages 33-33 views

Nablyudenie desmoidnoy fibromy myagkikh tkaney shei

Reshetov I.V., Novikova O.V., Dar'yalova S.L., Polyakov A.P., Epifanov S.V., Khiyaeva V.A.

Abstract

The authors describe a case of desmoid fibroma of rare site. They outline the existing treatments for this pathology and their uses in this female patient. Due to ineffective medical treatment, surgery has been performed using a displaced muscle flap to close the formed defect.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):35-39
pages 35-39 views

Shvannomy pishchevoda

Davydov M.I., Turkin I.N., Bliznyukov O.P., Levitskiy A.V., Davydov M.M., Chekini A.K.

Abstract

The paper describes grade 1 malignant esophageal schwannoma atypically located at the level of the upper thoracic aperture in a 20-year-old female patient. The tumor was excised via a left-sided cervical approach after esophagotomy. The diagnosis was immunohistochemically and electron microscopically verified. The follow-up was 3 years. There were no signs of recurrence. The patient has been satisfactorily discharged home and is being followed up.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):39-42
pages 39-42 views

Vnegonadnaya opukhol' zheltochnogo meshka v sredostenii v sochetanii s metastazami raka pochki v legkom

Korolev A.V., Andreeva Y.Y., Zavalishina L.E., Rudakov R.V., Pikin O.V.

Abstract

The paper describes a case of a rare combination of extragonadal yolk sac tumor with kidney cancer spreading to the lung. It shows a problem in the preoperative diagnosis of germinogenic mediastinal tumor that mimics a metastasis from renal cancer.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):42-44
pages 42-44 views

Kolebanie urovnya serologicheskogo opukholeassotsiirovannogo markera SCC u bol'noy ploskokletochnym rakom sheyki matki v dlitel'noy remissii

Sergeeva N.S., Novikova E.G., Marshutina N.V.

Abstract

The paper describes a follow-up of a patient with cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) in remission. The serum level of SCC (the major tumor-associated marker of CCU) was determined 22 times in the patient. There were cases of lower and higher SCC levels, without achieving the upper normal range for this marker. At the same times, 2 successive measures showed increased SCC levels that were not confirmed by the development of a relapse of the underlying disease and the level of SCC was decreased. With the increased levels of SCC that do not exceed its upper normal range, analysis should be twice made at a 3-4-week interval. The assumption that there is a high probability of developing a recurrence is substantiated in cases of 3 successive SCC increases provided that the last value of the marker exceeds the upper normal range.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):44-45
pages 44-45 views

Sovremennye vozmozhnosti endobronkhial'noy khirurgii i fotodinamicheskoy terapii pri zlokachestvennykh opukholyakh trakhei i bronkhov

Sokolov V.V., Telegina L.V.

Abstract

The paper details worldwide clinical experience with intraluminal endobronchial surgery over the 19th-20th centuries, the original objective of which was to deliver palliative care to incurable patients and at present it has ensured not only the timely detection of early forms of respiratory malignancies, but also their early stage treatment. The state-of-the-art of the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of disseminated tracheal and bronchial tumors and early central lung cancer (ECLC). A complex of diagnostic studies has been studied in detail to detect ECLC, which presently includes fluorescence bronchoscopy, NBI bronchoscopy, endosonography, spiral computed tomography.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):46-49
pages 46-49 views

Migratsiya kletok i onkogenez

Spirina L.V., Kondakova I.V.

Abstract

Tumor spread is a sign of disease progression. This process is associated with the migration of tumor cells and the development of new blood vessels (neoangiogenesis). The review gives the basic migration markers and their role in oncogenesis. The changes in the properties of tumor cells underlie tumor metastasis and invasion, which is associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Mitogenic factors are first produced by a tumor cell and then by its microenvironment. Its key point is the capacity of a tumor to respond to growth factors.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):49-53
pages 49-53 views

Klassifikatsii protokovogo raka in situ molochnoy zhelezy

Efremov G.D., Frank G.A.

Abstract

The paper provides the morphological characteristics and analyzes the basic criteria used for the classification of in situ ductal cancer. Today's classification schemes and the diagnostic significance of their used morphological characteristics are compared. Differentially diagnostic criteria for different types of in situ intraductal carcinoma are given.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):53-56
pages 53-56 views

Pamyati Klementiya Petrovicha Dulganova

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Russian Journal of Oncology. 2010;15(3):56-56
pages 56-56 views

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