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Vol 26, No 2 (2021)

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Original Study Articles

Phagocytic and chemiluminescent activity of blood neutrophils in patients with bladder cancer

Savchenko A.A., Zukov R.A., Firsov M.A., Slepov E.V., Belenyuk V.D., Gvozdev I.I., Borisov A.G.


BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment modulates (including with the help of metabolites) the functional activity of the neutrophils that contribute to the reprogramming of the antitumor activity into a protumor one.

AIMS: To study the phagocytic and chemiluminescent activity of neutrophils in patients with bladder cancer (BC) under the influence of metabolites of the tumor microenvironment in vitro.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 37 patients with superficial BC (T1,а,isN0M0) and considered 32 healthy individuals as a control group. Neutrophils isolated from their blood were incubated in vitro with lactate, ADP, and glutamate. Phagocytic activity was examined using flow cytometry, and the intensity of the respiratory burst of neutrophils was evaluated via chemiluminescent analysis.

RESULTS: In patients with BC, the phagocytic index (PhI) values are reduced compared to the control sample (without in vitro metabolite exposure) and when exposed to glutamate, while the effect of lactate on cells causes an increase in the phagocytic number and PhI. Moreover, under the influence of lactate in vitro, the activity of spontaneous and zymosan-induced chemiluminescence of neutrophils decreases. ADP causes a decrease in spontaneous chemiluminescence only. Finally, under the influence of glutamate, the indicators of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence decrease.

CONCLUSIONS: Under the influence of lactate and ADP (products of tumor cells), the phagocytic activity of a population of immature neutrophils is stimulated, which leads to myeloid suppressor cells that inhibit antitumor immunity. Thus, metabolites of the tumor microenvironment modulate the activity of the respiratory burst of neutrophils in patients with BC.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(2):39-48
pages 39-48 views

Prognostic value of quantitative assessment of macrophage content (CD68+) in the peritumoral zone of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Bobrov I.P., Lazarev A.F., Cherdantseva T.M., Klimachev I.V., Klimachev V.V., Myadelets M.N., Lepilov A.V., Dolgatov A.Y., Korsikov N.A., Dolgatova E.S., Lushnikova E.L., Bakarev M.A.


AIM: To quantitatively analyze the macrophage distribution density (MF) of the peritumoral zone (PZ) of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and determine the relationship of MF distribution density in PZ with clinical and morphological prognostic variables and postoperative survival of patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 52 patients with CCRCC, who had an average age of 56.7±0.8 years. Using monoclonal mouse antibodies for CD68 (clone PG-M1, DAKO), using an immunohistochemical method, macrophages were identified in the paraffin sections. The average amount of MF in the PZ was determined in three fields of view at ×400 magnification. For the PZ, the tissue was taken directly adjacent to the tumor to the conditionally unchanged kidney tissue.

RESULTS: The correlation analysis revealed that the density of the MF distribution in the CCRCC was interrelated with the stage of the disease (r=0.66; p=0.0001), size of the tumor node (r=0.52; p=0.0001), degree of anaplasia according to Fuhrman (r=0.80; p=0.0001), presence of metastases (r=0.62; 0.0001), and postoperative survival of patients (r=0.53; p=0.0001). However, there were no correlations with the gender (r=0.007; p=0.62) and age of the patients (r=0.03; p=0.83). With the number of MF in the PP <8.8, the cumulative proportion of survivors by the five-year term was 0.70 (70%). Moreover, when the number of MF in the PZ was ≥8.8, none of the patients lived to the five-year term, the cumulative proportion of survivors was 0 (log-rank-test, p=0.000001).

CONCLUSION: The density of MF distribution in PZ is interrelated with significant clinical and morphological parameters of CCRCC and is a predictor of the prognosis of five-year postoperative survival of patients. Thus, quantitative estimation of the number of MF in the PZ can be used in predicting the course of CCRCC along with the traditional classical forecasting factors.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(2):49-56
pages 49-56 views


The evolution of modern notions about bladder cancer

Yurchenko A.A., Firsov M.A., Zukov R.A., Slepov E.V.


The review details the evolution in the researchers’ perspective of bladder cancer over the past five decades. The history of the study, pathogenesis, etiology, and the clinical significance of urinary bladder are briefly discussed. The review presents currently prominent theories regarding the pathogenesis of urinary bladder neoplasms and the foundational research in this field. The article briefly discusses the molecular changes the development of bladder cancer and studies of the urine microbiome during oncogenesis

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(2):57-64
pages 57-64 views

Short communications

75th Anniversary of Altai oncological service. Current diagnostic and treatment capacities of neoplastic diseases in Altai region

Lazarev A.F., Vikhlyanov I.V.


Initiation of oncological services in the Altaiskiy Kray began simultaneously with the creation of the Russian anti-cancer service. It was in that difficult post-war period, when the country was in dire need of population restoration, that the fight against cancer increased by the order of the USSR council “On measures to improve oncological care for the population.” This most crucial historical decision served as a catalyst not only for the technological development of the oncology service but also for the scaling of its key achievements, tools, and algorithms for including the population (prevention, oncology registration, etc.) into the regional oncology network. Thus, in 1946, among the first in the country, an oncology office was opened in post-war Barnaul.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(2):65-71
pages 65-71 views

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