Epidemiology and clinical course of vulvar melanoma: experience of the Republic of Bashkortostan

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Abstract


In 2019, melanoma affects 66.9 per 100,000 populations in the Russian Federation, which was higher than 44.5 in 2009. Vulvar melanoma is one of the rare localizations of malignant tumors. Its disease course and prevalence differ from those of skin melanoma. Given the rarity of this localization, no large studies have been published in the Russian Federation.

Objective. This study aimed to study the clinical course and prevalence of vulvar melanoma in the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the clinical course of malignant tumors of the external genital organs was carried out in 324 patients within a 5-year period. Vulvar melanoma was diagnosed in 23 cases, which accounted for 6.5% of the total number of patients with malignant neoplasms of the female external genital organs. The clinical course and medical data in 23 patients diagnosed with vulvar melanoma were evaluated. The disease stage, characteristics of the clinical course, and presence of BRAF and c-KIT mutations were assessed. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, the incidence of vulvar melanoma was estimated based on the data of the Republican Clinical Oncological Dispensary.

Results. Within 5 years, 23 patients were diagnosed with vulvar melanoma, which is a very small proportion relative the total number of patients with cancer. Difficulties in determining the scope of adequate surgical treatment and presence of prognostic factors define the prognosis of the disease. Most of the patients at the first stage of the disease received surgical treatment. The scope of surgical treatment was based on the localization of the primary tumor and the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes.

Conclusion. Vulvar melanoma is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as in the Russian Federation, no register has been established for this localization. In view of the anatomical features of this zone, the tumor develops more aggressively and characterized by early lymphogenous metastasis. In patients with fairly young age, an aggressive disease course requires special attention.


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About the authors

Konstantin V. Menshikov

Bashkir State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: kmenshikov80@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3734-2779

Russian Federation, 450008, Ufa

MD, PhD, oncologist of the Department of Chemotherapy of the Republican Clinical Oncological Dispensary, 450054, Ufa, Russian Federation, Associate Professor of the Department of Oncology with courses oncology and pathological anatomy, Bashkir State Medical University, 450008, Ufa, Russian Federation

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1.
Fig. 1. The number of patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of the vulva in the Republic of Bashkortostan in the period from 2015 to 2019

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2.
Fig. 2. А – Distribution of patients according to T criterion. B – according to N criterion. C – according to M

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3.
Fig. 3. Melanoma of the vulva. When examining the postoperative material, the T1B stage was established

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4.
Fig. 4. The presence of a mutation in the BRAF gene of the V600E type

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