Vol 25, No 5 (2020)

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Full Issue

Clinical investigations

Epidemiological features of cervical malignancies in the Altai region

Korepanov S.V., Lazarev A.F., Nikolaeva M.G., Petrova V.D.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of cervical malignancies in the Altai region.

Material and methods. This study used data from the cancer register of the Altai Regional Cancer Center in Barnaul City. The cancer register records data of approximately 253,000 patients with malignant neoplasms, including 12,259 women with cervical cancer. We evaluated the “rough” (per 100,000 female populations) and standardized (world standard per 100,000 female populations) indicators of morbidity and mortality of cervical malignancies in Altai region within 20 years. The dynamics of the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer was analyzed by year and age groups.

Results: For the 1989–2018 period in the Altai region, a significant shift was found in the incidence of cervical cancer, which tends to increase in young population of reproductive age. During the 2008–2018 period, no positive changes were noted in the indicators of early diagnosis, i.e., no changes were found in the proportion of patients diagnosed with stage I and II (%) cervical cancer for the first time and the proportion of patients with stage III and IV (%) cervical cancer. The proportion of women who died from cervical cancer in the structure of oncogynecological diseases in the Altai region exceeds that in the Russian Federation.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(5):164-169
pages 164-169 views

Epidemiology and clinical course of vulvar melanoma: experience of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Menshikov K.V.

Abstract

In 2019, melanoma affects 66.9 per 100,000 populations in the Russian Federation, which was higher than 44.5 in 2009. Vulvar melanoma is one of the rare localizations of malignant tumors. Its disease course and prevalence differ from those of skin melanoma. Given the rarity of this localization, no large studies have been published in the Russian Federation.

Objective. This study aimed to study the clinical course and prevalence of vulvar melanoma in the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the clinical course of malignant tumors of the external genital organs was carried out in 324 patients within a 5-year period. Vulvar melanoma was diagnosed in 23 cases, which accounted for 6.5% of the total number of patients with malignant neoplasms of the female external genital organs. The clinical course and medical data in 23 patients diagnosed with vulvar melanoma were evaluated. The disease stage, characteristics of the clinical course, and presence of BRAF and c-KIT mutations were assessed. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, the incidence of vulvar melanoma was estimated based on the data of the Republican Clinical Oncological Dispensary.

Results. Within 5 years, 23 patients were diagnosed with vulvar melanoma, which is a very small proportion relative the total number of patients with cancer. Difficulties in determining the scope of adequate surgical treatment and presence of prognostic factors define the prognosis of the disease. Most of the patients at the first stage of the disease received surgical treatment. The scope of surgical treatment was based on the localization of the primary tumor and the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes.

Conclusion. Vulvar melanoma is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as in the Russian Federation, no register has been established for this localization. In view of the anatomical features of this zone, the tumor develops more aggressively and characterized by early lymphogenous metastasis. In patients with fairly young age, an aggressive disease course requires special attention.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(5):170-175
pages 170-175 views

Clinical case

Tumor-like diseases of the peritoneum: description of a clinical case of treatment of peritoneal inclusion cyst

Barbolina T.D., Abdullaev A.G., Kozlov N.A., Tsygankova A.V., Kuzminov A.E., Laktionov K.K.

Abstract

This paper presents a clinical case of a rare peritoneal lesion. It was classified previously as a multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma, but is now considered a tumor-like disease. Despite the morphological signs of a benign formation, the disease course was unusually aggressive, which was expressed in early and repeated relapses.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(5):176-180
pages 176-180 views

Giant condiloma of Bushke–Löwenstein: a clinical case

Menshikov K.V., Lipatov O.N., Nasyrova S.F.

Abstract

Giant condyloma Buschke-Levenshtein is a large, exophytic, slow-growing, benign, warty lesion of the anogenital region. The cause of this pathology is infection with the human papillomavirus, mainly of the 6th or 11th type. The pathogenesis of giant genital warts is not well understood, and it is often considered an intermediate link between acute warts and squamous cell carcinoma. The frequency of occurrence in the general population is about 0.1%, which indicates the rarity of this pathology. The giant condyloma Buschke-Löwenstein was first described by the authors Buschke and Löwenstein in 1925. Currently, the literature contains descriptions of mostly single observations of patients with this pathology. The main method of treatment for giant condyloma Buschke-Levenshtein is surgical, the task of which is a wide excision of the tumor within healthy tissues. We present a clinical observation of a patient with a giant condyloma Buschke-Levenshtein. a 36-year-old patient underwent surgical treatment - removal of a large perineal tumor. At the time of surgery, the size of the tumor was about 25 × 15 cm. The patient underwent surgical treatment without complications, healing by primary intention. Within six months after the operation, no recurrence of the disease was detected. Thus, surgical treatment of such tumors is the only method that can count on the patient being cured.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(5):181-185
pages 181-185 views

Surgical treatment for left lobe of liver metastases from gastric cancer

Fokeev S.D., Lazarev A.F., Kazantseva E.S.

Abstract

Despite the development in oncological treatment, one of the unresolved problems is the treatment of stomach cancer with metastases to the liver. The standard treatment of colorectal cancer with metastases to the liver is surgery; however, the role of liver resection in the treatment of patients with non-colonial metastases in the liver remains uncertain. Herein, we present the treatment regimen of antral gastric cancer T3N1M1 with liver metastasis, which included extended combined subtotal–total gastric resection by Billroth II and lymphadenectomy on R-2 (by M.S. Segal), with resection of the left lobe of the liver (S2 and S3) and two incomplete courses of chemotherapy. This surgical intervention provided cure for a period of more than 31 years.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(5):186-188
pages 186-188 views

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