Vol 16, No 1 (2011)

Articles

Synchronous polyneoplasias in patients with gastric cancer: clinical and morphological regularities, treatment results

Skoropad V.Y., Berdov B.A., Skoropad V.Y., Berdov B.A.

Abstract

The paper analyzes synchronous polyneoplasias in radically operated patients with gastric cancer, which were detected in 2.9% of cases, including 7.3% among the patients with early gastric cancer. Among second tumors, there was a preponderance of neoplasms of the colon, urinary bladder, throat, lung, and kidney. Preoperative examination of patients with gastric cancer should exclude synchronous tumors of the most common sites. Conversely, gastroscopy should be included in a diagnostic algorithm for patients with the above neoplasms to exclude gastric cancer. Synchronous multiplicity of the disease is shown to be a contraindication to the radical treatment of each neoplasm. If reasonably effective palliative therapy for a second tumor can be performed during its generalizations, radical surgical treatment for gastric cancer is warranted. If there are technical feasibilities and the patient's functional status is adequate, simultaneous removal of both tumors is the method of choice. Radical treatment for synchronous tumors ensures high survival rates. In this patient category, the cardinal cause of death is second tumor progression, which is associated with the predominance of early gastric cancer.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):4-7
pages 4-7 views

Surgical tactics for hemorrhage-complicated gastric cancer

Repin V.N., Kostylev L.M., Gudkov O.S., Tsoy S.K., Repin V.N., Kostylev L.M., Gudkov O.S., Tsoi S.K.

Abstract

The paper presents diagnosis and surgical tactics while treating 219 patients with gastric cancer. Carcinoma was present in the cardia in 26% of the patients, in the body in 37.9%, in the anthral part in 17.8%, total lesion in 12.8%, and stump cancer in 5.5%. Seventy-four (33.8%) patients with arrested bleeding were recognized as inoperable; 145 patients were operated on. Emergency operations were performed in 28 patients; urgent operations due to threatening recurrent hemorrhage and delayed ones were in 14 and 103 patients. Gastrectomy with lymphodissection D2 was carried out in 78 (54.6%) patients and subtotal gastric resection was in 40 (28%); the other patients underwent palliative operations. Mortality was 14.3 and 21.4% after radical and palliative surgery, respectively. After radical operations, 66.1 and 32.9% survived 3 and 5 years, respectively.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):7-9
pages 7-9 views

Reconstructive-plastic and combined operations in patients with lung cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and intraoperative radiation

Miller S.V., Zav'yalov A.A., Tuzikov S.A., Efimov N.P., Dobrodeev A.Y., Polishchuk T.V., Yumov E.L., Miller S.V., Zavyalov A.A., Tuzikov S.A., Efimov N.N., Dobrodeev A.Y., Polishchuk T.V., Yumov E.L.

Abstract

The authors studied the results of reconstructive-plastic and combined operations when neoadjuvant systemic anti-tumor treatment and intraoperative radiotherapy were performed in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Additional chemoradiation was found to have no substantial impact on its postoperative course, to reduce the number of patients with disease progression, and to increase relapse-free and overall survival.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):9-13
pages 9-13 views

Intraoperative radiotherapy with cisplatin radiosensitization during combination treatment for Stage III lung cancer

Dobrodeev A.Y., Zav'yalov A.A., Tuzikov S.A., Musabaeva L.I., Miller S.V., Vorob'ev A.V., Dobrodeev A.Y., Zavyalov A.A., Tuzikov S.A., Musabayeva L.I., Miller S.V., Vorobyev A.V.

Abstract

The results of combination treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) (paclixel/carboplatin), radical surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), 10 Gy, during cisplatin radiosensitization were compared with those of radical surgery and IORT, 15 Gy, in 70 patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. NACT and additional use of cisplatin in a dose of 6 mg/m2 as a radiosensitizer during IORT could reduce a single radiation dose from 15 to 10 Gy and the incidence of postoperative pneumonias; there was a statistical significant increase in 2-year overall (88.4±6.2%) and relapse-free (84.6±7.1%) survival (p < 0.05).
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):13-17
pages 13-17 views

Prognostic value of determination of the degree of malignancy by the FNCLCC system and the expression of Ag-NOR proteins in leiomyosarcoma of the corpus uteri

Avdalyan A.M., Bobrov I.P., Klimachev V.V., Chechulin M.N., Lazarev A.F., Avdalyan A.M., Bobrov I.P., Klimachev V.V., Chechulin M.N., Lazarev A.F.

Abstract

Leiomyosarcoma of the corpus uteri is a rare malignancy that is difficult in diagnosis, randomization, and pathomorphological assessment of prognostic criteria. The authors estimated the prognostic value of determining the degree of malignancy of soft tissue tumors by the FNCLCC system in relation to Ag-NOR proteins and Ki-67. The findings indicated that the degree of malignancy was of the greatest prognostic value and an independent criteria for 10-year survival (χ2 = 18.9). A slightly less, but statistical significance was shown by Ki-67 expression (χ2 = 9.8) and the number of Ag-NOR proteins (χ2 = 13.4).
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):17-20
pages 17-20 views

Impact of anti-inflammatory therapy on the effects of photodynamic exposure in an experiment

Karmakova T.A., Vorontsova M.S., Venediktova Y.B., Yakubovskaya R.I., Karmakova T.A., Vorontsova M.S., Venediktova Y.B., Yakubovskaya R.I.

Abstract

A model of transplantable mouse sarcoma S-37 was used to show that the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs (ketonal and contrical) in therapeutic doses after photodynamic therapy (PDT) not only reduces the magnitude of photo-induced local tissue reactions, but may potentiate, in certain regimens, the therapeutic effect against the growth of primary tumor and metastases. The most signifiсant anti-tumor effect of PDT was observed when ketonal and contrical were coadministered twice 1 and 5 hours after light exposure. The study of the microvascular bed in the tumor growth area, by using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to the vascular endothelium (anti-CD31), has indicated that neovascularization processes are inhibited at the site of exposure when ketonal and contrical are given in the above regimen after PDT. The anti-inflammatory drug-potentiated antitumor effect of PDT is presumed to be caused by the inhibition of mediators of the exudative photo-induced nonspecific inflammation phase followed by delayed microvascular regenerative proliferation and prolonged injured tissue ischemia.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):20-26
pages 20-26 views

Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in cancer surgery

Chissov V.I., Osipova N.A., Ermolaev P.M., Kotin M.Y., El'darkhanov D.R., Khovanskaya T.P., Chissov V.I., Osipova N.A., Ermolayev P.M., Kotin M.Y., Eldarkhanov D.R., Khovanskaya T.P.

Abstract

Postoperative thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications (TEC and HC) were analyzed in 300 cancer surgical patients of a different profile in the same period of time, by assessing multiple risk factors and their prognostic value. There was a preponderance of postoperative HC (5%) over TEC (3%); the patients who received anticoagulant prevention (ACP) developed HC by twice more frequently than those who did not. In different periods after surgery the patients, including ACP-receiving ones, developed TEC: deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity on days 7-20 mainly after operations on abdominal and small pelvic organs, pulmonary artery thromboembolism on days 1-7 after thoracoabdominal operations. HO was prevalent in patients who had undergone removal of tumors of the head and neck in the complete absence of TEC. All complications were abolished without any fatal outcomes. The authors show it necessary to apply a differential approach to using ACP before extensive cancer operations (including those in patients at risk for thrombus), by taking into account the risk for high intraoperative blood loss and postoperative hemorrhage in the presence of large wound surfaces and posthemorrhagic and drug-induced hypocoagulation. It is expedient to develop an algorithm for the management of cancer surgical patients of a different profile, which provides the prevention of not only TEC, but also HC.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):26-29
pages 26-29 views

Lymphatic spread of distal gastric cancer

Akhmedzyanov F.S., Kitaev M.R., Yadykov O.A., Akhmedzyanova F.F., Akhmedzyanov F.S., Kitayev M.R., Yadykov O.A., Akhmedzyanova F.F.

Abstract

The specific features of lymphatic cancer spread were studied in 180 patients with distal gastric cancer in relation to the segmental gastric structure. The site of metastases and the direction of their spread were revealed depending on the site of a tumor in the gastric wall. The volume of surgical intervention was proposed in distal gastric cancer.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):30-33
pages 30-33 views

Effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists on the testosterone levels and quality of life in patients with locally advanced and generalized prostate cancer

Sokov D.G., Rusakov I.G., Sokov D.G., Rysakov I.G.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) was 5% of all revealed male malignancies in the Russian Federation in 2009. Among 23845 detected patients with PC, 53.4% had its Stage III or IV. This paper gives the results of a follow-up of patients with locally advanced and generalized PC treated by different hormonal therapy regimens. The purpose of the study was to search for the optimal hormonal therapy regimen, by maintaining the quality of life, whose criteria were potency level, libido, and normal physical activity. The follow-up data may lead to the conclusion that the 6-month use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists causes an irreversible reduction in potency and libido and a considerable decrease in testosterone levels. Sustained-release LHRH agonists decrease testosterone levels (below 20 ng/dl), are an easy-to-use and simple dosage form, and may be recommended for outpatient administration.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):33-36
pages 33-36 views

Breast cancer in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra

Zakharova N.A., Zakharova N.A.

Abstract

The prevalence of breast cancer was studied in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra in 2002 to 2008 inclusive on the basis of the records of the cancer registry of the District Clinical Hospital, Khanty-Mansiysk. The study demonstrated that breast cancer headed the list in the total structure of malignant causes of death in 2007 and ranked third in the structure of causes of death. The rate of morbidity increases was greater than that in Russia as a whole. The highest percentage of breast cancer was notified in the age group 40-59 years.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):37-38
pages 37-38 views

A rare localization of hematogenic metastases of non-small cell lung cancer

Trakhtenberg A.K., Frank G.A., Sokolov V.V., Butenko A.V., Kolbanov K.I., Pikin O.V., Rudakov R.V., Trakhtenberg A.K., Frank G.A., Sokolov V.V., Butenko A.V., Kolbanov K.I., Pikin O.V., Rudakov R.V.

Abstract

The paper describes a rare localization of non-small cell lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the large intestine wall. The authors recommend active surgical policy for solitary metastases since it prolongs life for patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):39-41
pages 39-41 views

Long relapse-free interval in a patient with kidney cancer metastazing to the brain after surgical removal with intraoperative photodynamic therapy

Kurzhupov M.I., Zaytsev A.M., Filonenko E.V., Kurzhupov M.I., Zaitsev A.M., Filonenko E.V.

Abstract

At present, median survival is about 1 month in untreated patients with intracerebral metastases; 2 months when corticosteroids are added, 3-6 months after whole-brain irradiation (WBI), and 12-16 months if surgery or radiosurgery is used in combination with WBI. The described case demonstrates the efficiency of combined treatment for intracerebral metastases, which comprises surgical removal of metastasis with intraoperative photodynamic therapy for the removed tumor bed. The patient had no recurrent intracerebral metastasis within 23 months after surgery.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):41-42
pages 41-42 views

Antiangiogenic therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: Possibilities and promises

Borisov K.E., Sakaeva D.D., Borisov K.E., Sakayeva D.D.

Abstract

The review provides information on the role of antiangiogenic therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan allows tumor growth to be controlled in the majority of patients. Thalidomide may be an alternative to bevacizumab although its efficacy requires further investigations and confirmation. The activity of tyrosine kinase VEGRF inhibitors in monotherapy for glioblastoma is minimal; in this connection their combinations with standard chemoradiotherapy is being studied. Certain hopes are pinned on the new group of drugs - integrin receptor inhibitors.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):43-49
pages 43-49 views

Neuropathic pain syndrome in oncological care: Diagnosis and new approaches to its therapy

Abuzarova G.R., Abuzarova G.R.

Abstract

The paper describes noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain, main approaches to differential therapy for pain, the current principles of therapy, developed by the European Federation of Neurologists and their use in cancer patients, and presents the author's material obtained in the trial of the efficacy and safety of last-generation anticonvulsants.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2011;16(1):50-56
pages 50-56 views

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