Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Access granted  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Vol 25, No 6 (2020)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Clinical investigations

Digital technologies in prostate cancer prevention and early diagnosis

Lazarev A.F., Petrova V.D., Pokornyak V.P., Lazarev S.A., Marchkov V.A., Ganov D.I.

Abstract

Background. Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in males. The Russian Federation observed the same patterns: the incidence of prostate cancer is steadily growing, without the tendency to decrease. Currently, no effective methods are available for prostate cancer early diagnosis and screening.

Aim. To improve the effectiveness of prostate cancer prevention and early diagnosis with new digital technologies for high-risk cancer group formation

Material and methods. Data from the Cancer Registry population in the “Altai regional cancer center,” Barnaul City was used. The Cancer Registry includes information about 253,000 patients with malignant neoplasms, including 14,482 males suffering from prostate cancer. Based on the targeted prevention method of A.F. Lazarev, “Method for determining the risk of prostate cancer” (Patent 2692987) and “Automated program for early diagnosis of prostate cancer” (certificate of state registration of the computer program No. 2019663514) was developed, which simplifies the stage of forming groups of precancerous high oncorisk and increases prostate cancer detection, as well as develops personalized targeted preventive measures for each patient.

Results. The study formed a group of 328 patients with precancerous high oncorisk for prostate cancer in the Cancer Registry, wherein an in-depth examination revealed 26 patients with prostate cancer, which was 7.9%. Stages I and II were established in 97.8%.

Conclusion. The web application “Automated program for early diagnosis of prostate cancer” allows the group formation of high-risk patients who are a targeted search for prostate cancer. The testing process allows a large number of patients to be examined in a short time. The “automated program for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer” allows a statistically significant increased prostate cancer detection, as well as personalized preventive measure suggestions for each patient.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(6):192-199
pages 192-199 views

Correlation analysis of interleukin-10 indicators and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as clinical indicators of rehabilitation treatment of postmastectomy lymphedema in patients after complex breast cancer treatment

Agranovich N.V., Sivolapova M.S., Kirsanova D.V., Marchenko A.G., Gulieva L.A., Muskhadzhieva R.M., Cнernomazov V.N., Anopchenko A.S.

Abstract

Background. Cellular immunity and cytotoxic agents are involved in the inflammatory process and tumor cell apoptosis resolution.Background. Cellular immunity and cytotoxic agents are involved in the inflammatory process and tumor cell apoptosis resolution. Endothelial cell apoptosis violation, imbalanced cytokines are considered as one of the contributory factors for postmastectomy lymphedema development.

Aim. To assess the correlation between the interleukin profile (interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and clinical indicators of postmastectomy lymphedema in the rehabilitation treatment course after complex breast cancer treatment

Materials and methods. The study involved 50 people aged 40–65 years. The main group consisted of 40 females who underwent a rehabilitation treatment course for postmastectomy lymphedema. The control group consisted of 10 females with a verified breast cancer diagnosis who were preparing for surgical treatment. The statistical analysis determined the differences between the mean values of indicators using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon T-test. Spearman’s nonparametric correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the studied characteristics. Differences between indicators were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05.

Results. The indices of the studied interleukins in the control group are significantly higher than that of the main group. Interleukin-10 remained unchanged in the course of restorative treatment, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased from 43.72 ± 10 pg/l to 118.94 ± 14.74 pg/l. After the course, a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) was found between the levels of the studied interleukins. A positive trend was observed as a result of rehabilitation treatment of postmastectomy lymphedema: the average excess volume in patients of the main group decreased by 38.5%.

Conclusion. Evaluation of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with postmastectomy lymphedema allows not only the restorative treatment results assessment and determination of the immune status parameter and damage degree of the vascular endothelium of a particular patient but also prognosis formation of malignant neoplasm development.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(6):200-207
pages 200-207 views

Clinical case

Uncommon case of the acral melanoma with chondro-osseous metaplasia

Bychkova E.Y., Grigoruk O.G., Kuratov D.O., Afanasieva E.A., Bazulina L.M., Bykova N.A.

Abstract

Aim. This study aimed to improve the diagnostics of acral melanoma and investigate tumor morphological features of the chondroid and osseous matrix.

Materials and methods. The article presents a clinical case of metastatic acral melanoma with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a 60-year-old patient. Cytological, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies were performed.

Results. A conglomerate of lymph nodes was noted in the inguinal region of the patient. Oxyphilic chondroid masses and tumor cells with morphological features of sarcoma were revealed using thin-needle aspiration biopsy. On physical examination, pink-colored subcutaneous neoplasm was discovered in the skin of the heel. Histological examination of the primary neoplasm and inguinal lymph node was performed. Melanoma with chondro-osseous metaplasia was diagnosed. Immunohistochemical examination of the tumor revealed some pronounced diffuse expressions of S-100 protein, HMB-45, and focal expression of Melan A in tumor cells. The sample was tested to detect BRAF mutation, and no mutations were found.

Conclusion. Morphological diagnostics of acral melanoma with chondro-osseous metaplasia is characterized by a high risk of diagnostic error. Therefore, additional immunohistological, molecular, and genetic studies should be used in the diagnostics of acral melanoma with chondro-osseous metaplasia.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(6):208-212
pages 208-212 views

Systemic chemotherapy for primary cutaneous b-cell lymphoma, leg-type: a case report

Kamaeva I.A., Lysenko I.B., Nikolaeva N.V., Kapuza E.A., Pushkareva T.F., Lapteva T.O., Velichko A.V.

Abstract

Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a group of extranodal B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Primary cutaneous diffuse B-large cell lymphoma, leg-type, is an extremely rare and aggressive variant of primary cutaneous lymphoma. Due to the contradictory nature, poor prognosis, and high frequency of recurrence of this disease, the treatment of patients is multidisciplinary, based on an accurate histological and immunohistochemical classification as well as risk factor assessment. In this report, we present a clinical case of primary cutaneous B-large cell skin lymphoma, leg-type, with a positive response to chemotherapy.

Clinical case. A clinical observation of chemotherapy of a patient with primary B-large cell skin lymphoma, leg-type, is presented. The patient underwent 6 R-CHOP chemotherapy courses and achieved an uncertain complete disease remission.

Conclusion. The results obtained confirm the limited literature data on the need for timely administration of systemic chemotherapy in the management of this pathology.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(6):213-218
pages 213-218 views

Literature review

Histopathological examination of surgical breast cancer specimens after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using digital radiography

Telezhnikova I.M., Setdikova G.R., Khomeriki S.G., Zhukova L.G.

Abstract

The article provides a literature overview on significance, pathologic assessment of residual disease problems, and digital radiography (DR) potential in breast cancer (BC) after neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). Within the framework of the paper, the authors carry out an analysis of the Russian and English-language publications from PubMed, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, eLibrary, and Cyberleninka. The comparison of the Russian clinical guidelines for BC diagnosis and the European and American guidelines revealed a lack of information on DR usage in the morphological assessment. The review showed the international experience in DR usage and demonstrated the relevance of the solution of morphological assessment problems in BC regression degree after NAT due to necessary clinical trial protocol standardization and increased predictive residual tumor class significance. The DR facilitated the morphological identification of metal markers implanted into the tumor bed, microcalcifications, altered foci, and improved tumor bed visibility, which is important for further objective status assessment of the resection margins and residual cancer burden class. The authors consider it necessary to conduct a study to optimize the residual tumor assessment using DR.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2020;25(6):219-226
pages 219-226 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies