Vol 17, No 3 (2012)

Articles

RESULTS OF SURGICAL AND COMBINATION TREATMENT FOR RECTAL CANCER

Chissov V.I., Frank G.A., Sidorov D.V., Mainovskaya O.A., Troitsky A.A., Lozhkin M.V., Grishin N.A., Petrov L.O.

Abstract

The results of surgical versus combination treatment for rectal cancer (RC) were analyzed. Changing from the standard, the so-called orthodox, surgery for RC to total mesorectumectomy (TME) could considerably reduce the rate of local recurrences and improve the functional results of treatment. However, there has still been no general use of TME as the operation of choice for RC. The results of examining and treating 542 patients with stage I-IV RC treated at the Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute in 1982 to 2010 inclusive were studied. Combination treatment was performed in 242 patients. TME was used in 112 patients. The mean duration of surgery was 211.4±79.1 and 282.2±67.9 min in the non-TME and TME groups, respectively (p < 0.05). In these groups, the frequency of early postoperative complications was 43.3 and 24.1%, respectively (χ 2 = 15.31; p = 0.0009). In the TME group patients who had undergone potentially radical operations, three-year overall survival was 85.9% versus 67.4% in the non-TME group (p = 0.181). In these groups, tumor-specific survival was 89.1 and 77.0%, respectively (p = 0.116).
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):4-7
pages 4-7 views

ANALYSIS OF QUALITY-OF-LIFE INDICATORS AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY METASTASES FROM COLORECTAL CANCER

Kaganov O.I., Kozlov S.V.

Abstract

Quality of life (QL) was studied in 48 patients who had undergone radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) for pulmonary metastases; a control group consisted of 55 patients with atypical lung resection. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General module (FACT-G) with the FACT-Lung (FACT-L) one was used to assess QL. Prior to surgery, QL in both groups was shown to be lower and in the study group it was 54.3±98.08 scores on the FACT-G scale and 67.0±8.55 scores on the FACT-L scale and in the control group QL was 53.22±7.17 and 66.29±7.93 scores, respectively (p < 0.05). By and large, QL indicators tended to be better within one year postoperatively. Three and six months after surgery, all indicators improved statistically and clinically significantly in the study group as compared to the control one. At 3 to 6 months, the study and control groups were recorded to have the highest (11% and 9%) increases in QL, respectively.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):8-11
pages 8-11 views

LYNCH SYNDROME AND SPORADIC COLORECTAL CANCER: CLINICAL AND GENEALOGICAL FEATURES

Chudina A.P.

Abstract

Two hundred and one families that had cases of colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives and had been followed up for at least 5 years were selected from the Moscow Familial Cancer Registry and divided into 3 groups: 1) 6 families with Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer); 2) 36 cancer families without Lynch syndrome; 3) 159 noncancer families. Comparative analysis has shown that the families with Lynch syndrome significantly differ from those of two other subgroups in the following respects: 1) hereditary cancer loading (cancer cases in more than 60% of relatives over 20 years of age); 2) high incidence rates for multiple cancers in women; 3) more common cancer involvement of the colon than the rectus; 4) cancer of the corpus uteri is a second malignancy after colorectal cancer among women; 5) primary malignancies occur 10-20 years earlier with the tumor-specific survival being 5-7 years longer than in the two other groups; 6) during a 5-year follow-up, new cancer cases occurred among first-degree and first-to-third-degree relatives in 50 and 83% of the families, respectively. The cancer families differed from noncancer ones only in general hereditary cancer loading (35.6 versus 12.5%) and in the rate of new cases in first-to-third relatives (33.3% versus 10.7%).
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):11-14
pages 11-14 views

USE OF COLETEX-GEL-DNA AND COLETEX-GEL-DNA-L IN PATIENTS WITH OROPHARYNGEAL MALIGNANCIES TO PREVENT AND TREAT ACUTE RADIATION REACTIONS

Velsher L.Z., Boiko A.V., Shipilina N.P., Reshetov D.N., Korobkova A.Y., Kosmynin A.A.

Abstract

The efficacy of topical Coletex-gel-DNA and Coletex-gel-DNA-L was analyzed in the radiotherapy of patients with otopharyngeal malignancies. The application of these agents was found to significantly reduce the magnitude of grade III radiation-induced oral and pharyngeal reactions from 66.8 to 24.6% as compared to the classical way of preventing these reactions.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):15-19
pages 15-19 views

LATE RADIATION DAMAGES DURING DIFFERENTLY FRACTIONATED CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER

Radzhapova M.U., Mardynsky Y.S., Gulidov I.A., Semin D.Y., Medvedev V.S., Ivanova I.N.

Abstract

The tolerability of chemoradiotherapy procedures by irregularly adjusting a daily dose and standard radiation was studied by the toxic effect of late radiation damage to the normal tissues and organs of the oral cavity and oropharynx. There were 221 clinical cases of primary cancer of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa. Late radiation damages to normal tissues and organs occurred in 31 (14%) of the 221 treated patients in different periods. Moreover, they happened in 20.2% of the patients after radiation therapy and in 8.9 and 10.8% after chemoradiotherapy by dividing the dose into 1+1.5 and 1+2 Gy, respectively (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that the tolerability of simultaneous differently fractionated chemoradiotherapy is satisfactory according to the late toxicity criteria - radiation damage to normal tissues and organs in the radiation area.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):19-22
pages 19-22 views

IMPACT OF CHEMORADIATION THERAPY ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI: A REVIEW

Churuksayeva O.N., Kolomiyets L.A.

Abstract

Quality of life was estimated in 57 patients with Stages IIB/IIIB locally advanced cancer of the cervix uteri. A comparative analysis was made in 2 groups of patients receiving chemoradiotherapy with preradiation chemotherapy, subsequent combined radiotherapy and combined radiotherapy according to the radical program. Chemoradiotherapy was ascertained to contribute to more pronounced positive changes in the values of functional scales and a significant increase in total health status.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):22-25
pages 22-25 views

BREAST CANCER: MORBIDITY, MORTALITY, SURVIVAL (A POPULATION-BASED STUDY)

Merabishvili V.M.

Abstract

Breast cancer morbidity, mortality, and survival were examined in a population-based study. The survival rate is the most objective criterion to assess the activity of a cancer service. Analysis of trends in the 5-year observed and relative survival rates of women with breast cancer in 1994 to 2003 could reveal their rises from 60.5 to 65.8 and from 71.2 to 77.2%, respectively. One-year observed and relative survival rates in 1994 to 2008 increased from 84.7 to 88.3 and from 87.4 to 90.6%, respectively. There was a great difference in the survival rates in breast cancer patients treated at specialized cancer hospitals versus those at general surgical hospitals.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):25-29
pages 25-29 views

A REGIONAL POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY CENTER: ASSESSMENT OF INITIAL RESULTS

Vazhenin A.V., Afanasyeva N.G., Vazhenina D.A., Zotova A.S., Chashchukhin D.N., Vaganov N.V., Kalantayev D.B., Trofimov D.V., Varennikova A.A., Ozerov E.A.

Abstract

The first regional positron emission tomography (PET) center was established in the Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary. PET in combination with computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed in 374 patients with cancer of various sites. The first results of this investigation have indicated that PET/CT is a high-information tool to estimate the extent of malignant tumors; PET/CT could change the stage of the disease and accordingly choose a proper treatment policy in 22.3% of cases. The study contributed to the early detection of recurrences in patients after combination treatment. PET/CT enhanced the effective evaluation of chemotherapy, which led to its timely correction in a number of cases.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):30-33
pages 30-33 views

INCIDENCE OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS OF THE BONE AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE IN SIBERIA AND THE FAR EAST

Pisareva L.F., Anisenya I.I., Lyakhova N.P., Boyarkina A.P., Odintsova I.N.

Abstract

The authors studied the incidence of malignant neoplasms of the bone and articular cartilage (BAC) in Siberia and the Far East over 1994-2008. The regional, time, and age characteristics of BAC malignancies were analyzed using the sex and age intensive and standardized incidence rates (world standard) per 100,000. Analysis of the results of examining 7069 patients diagnosed as having BAC malignancy over 1994-2008 showed that in the average the regions of Siberia and the Far East showed a reduction in the incidence of malignancies at these sites; its peak being was notified in a 60-74-year age group. Higher incidence rates of BAC malignancies were registered in children aged 15-19 years.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):33-36
pages 33-36 views

SIMULTANEOUS SURGERY FOR GASTRIC AND HEPATIC POLYNEOPLASIA

Chissov V.I., Vashakmadze L.A., Sidorov D.V., Cheremisov V.V., Khomyakov V.M., Andrianov A.N.

Abstract

The concurrence of gastric cancer and primary hepatic neoplasm ranks third in the structure of polyneoplasia associated with gastric cancer and accounts for 14.3%. Gastric tubular adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are predominant histological forms. In practice, the hepatic focal mass detected is generally interpreted as metastatic lesion, which frequently leads to unfounded refusal of radical treatment. At the same time, adequate preoperative examination with the obligatory histological verification of both a gastric tumor and a hepatic mass and the comparison of their morphological patterns permits one to make a correct diagnosis and to plan a potentially radical intervention for both nosological entities.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):37-39
pages 37-39 views

A CASE OF EFFECTIVE COMBINATION TREATMENT FOR INTRACEREBRAL METASTASES FROM OVARIAN CANCER

Reshetov I.V., Zaitsev A.M., Filonenko E.V., Kurzhupov M.I.

Abstract

The described clinical case demonstrates the efficiency of combination treatment for intracerebral metastases, which involves surgical removal of metastasis with intraoperative fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy for the bed of a removed tumor, followed by brain radiation. The patient has been alive for 17 months since intracerebral metastases were detected.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):39-41
pages 39-41 views

ROLE OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RECTAL CANCER, THE PLANNING OF AND EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF ITS TREATMENT

Rubtsova N.A., Puzakov K.B.

Abstract

The review shows the possibilities and role of current medical imaging methods in clinical decision-making when planning a treatment option for rectal cancer. It analyzes the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for the preoperative estimation of the extent of rectal cancer (invasion depth, adjacent tissue involvement, regional lymph node metastases) and for the evaluation of the efficiency of performed treatment, and its follow-up monitoring.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):42-50
pages 42-50 views

PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL CANCER METASTASES TO THE LUNG

Pikin O.V., Alekseyev B.Y., Amiraliyev A.M.

Abstract

The paper reviews Russian and foreign references on the choice of treatment policy in patients with renal cancer metastases to the lung providing that primary kidney tumor can be removed or that there is a history of nephrectomy and there are no metastases in other organs. It describes the results of surgical and medical treatment (immunotherapy) in this category of patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of prognostic factors when choosing treatment policy. Key prognostic factors, such as the possibility of complete removal of lung metastases, the number and sizes of foci, and a postnephrectomy disease-free interval (DFI), are identified. Four prognostic groups are made up and the long-term results of surgical treatment are given in the patients of each group. The general conclusion can be drawn regarding that drug therapy should be preferred over surgical treatment when metastases are irresectable or there is a combination of some poorfactors (more than 6 foci, a short metastasis-free interval of < 36 months or DFI = 0).
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):50-53
pages 50-53 views

CURRENT APPROACHES TO EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT FOR REPRODUCTIVE TRACT TUMORS BY RECIST OR GCIG CRITERIA

Korneyeva I.A., Novikova E.G., Rubtsova N.A., Moskovskaya E.Y., Puzakov K.B.

Abstract

The present communication discusses unified criteria for assessing the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RESIST) that are used to determine complete and partial responses, stabilization, and progression. It gives a classification of gynecological cancer intergroup (GCIG) criteria for elevated CA125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer after termination of primary therapy, which can determine the time of disease progression in patients having isolated growth of the marker during monitoring, without revealing tumor foci.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(3):54-56
pages 54-56 views

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