Vol 21, No 4 (2016)


Female reproductive system tumors with Merkel cell phenotype

Nikogosyan S.O., Tagibova T.S., Kuznetsov V.V., Anurova O.A.


Diagnostics and treatment of female reproductive system tumors with Merkel cell phenotype, rare aggressive tumors with dismal prognosis, is under consideration in this article. Only 20 cases of Merkel cell vulvar carcinoma and 1 case of Merkel cell vagina cancer were described in the literature. Diagnostics must include immunohistochemical analysis, as expression of cytokeratine 20 proves to be the most typical factor. Polyomavirus infection is believed to be associated with the disease pathogenesis. No treatment standards were accepted due to the rarity of the disease. Considering the data on tumor radiosensitivity, the treatment must include radio- or chemoradiotherapy.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):172-174
pages 172-174 views

Primary reconstructive plastic surgery in nodular form of III stage breast cancer

Khaylenko D.V., Egorov Y.S., Portnoy S.M., Khaylenko V.A.


In this study there was evaluated the possibility to perform one-stage reconstructive and plastic operations (RPO) in III stage breast cancer (BC) cases. There were analyzed two similar groups of patients, depending on the volume of the operations: in the 1st (main) group there were carried out RPO of different kinds of simultaneously with radical mastectomies (RME), in the 2nd (control) RMEs with preservation of pectoral muscles. There were analyzed overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS); the frequency ofpostoperative complications and aesthetic results of the treatment. 3-, 5- and 10-year OS and DFS in group statistically did not differed significantly (p > 0.05). The rate of postoperative complications was in the group of patients who undergone RPO by TRAM-flap accounted of 8.3%, in the RME group - 6.9% (p> 0.05). The aesthetic results of the treatment: satisfactory in RPO, unsatisfactory - in RME.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):175-178
pages 175-178 views

Rebiopsy in IV stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients after systemic therapy

Yudin D.I., Anteev A.A., Marinov D.T., Ardzinba M.S., Laktionov K.K.


Rebiopsies are not performed in currently clinical practice for the patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, identification of as an activating mutation, as other molecular and genetic disorders can considerably change management and prognosis for these patients. Twenty-nine patients with advanced NSCLC after systemic therapy were rebiopsied and samples were studied for a limited range of genetic alterations (sensitizing EGFR mutations, T790M, KRAS gene mutations, translocation of ALK, ROS1, expression PD-L1). Results were used for making decision on further treatment.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):179-185
pages 179-185 views

Results of X-ray endovascular hemostasis in the treatment of malignant neoplasms of the colon and rectum, complicated by bleeding

Shelekhov A.V., Dvornichenko V.V., Munkuev A.V., Rasulov R.I., Radostev S.I., Novopashin A.Y., Minakin N.I., Moskovskikh D.V.


There are present near results of X - ray endovascular hemostasis in patients suffering from malignant neoplasm of rectosigmoid colon and rectum complicated by bleeding. Patients were divided into basic group (n=16) where the X - ray-endovascular hemostasis was performed and control group (17 patients) where the conservative methods of hemostasis were used. For angiography there was used X-raysurgical complex “GE INNOVA 4100” (General Electric, USA) and ”SHIMADZU” (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan). After preformed hemostasis, the patients of the control and basic groups for rectal cancer were undergone to preoperative radiotherapy, then radical surgery, for rectosigmoid cancer - surgical treatment. The quantity, volume of donor blood products in the treatment ofpatients of the control group were used in a significantly greater extent (p<0.01) than in cases from the basic group, with the similar median of the blood loss, while in 100% of cases in the control group of patients at 13.3±1.6 day of treatment there was noted the recurrence of bleeding. In the basic group no signs of recurrence of bleeding were noted. The reduction in the relative risk of the development of bleeding during performance of the preoperative radiation therapy in the basic group amounted to 100%. Thus, the method of X- ray endovascular hemostasis can reliably stop intraluminal colorectal tumor bleeding, that allows to stabilize the patient without resorting to repeated blood transfusions.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):186-189
pages 186-189 views

Prior malignant neoplasms as a risk factor for the second cancer in a cohort of employees of enterprises of the nuclear industrial complex

Osipov M.V., Sokolnikov M.E.


Purpose. Assessment of the persistence ofprevious malignancy as a risk factor for the detection of subsequent cancer in a cohort of nuclear workers. Material and methods. Retrospective cohort study with 60 years of follow-up on 22.373 workers of nuclear facility recruited from 1948 to 2008, with the use of data on individual external and internal dosimetry, and information about cancer incidence and mortality rate due to cancer neoplasma (CN). Results. In the studied cohort second and subsequent CN were diagnosed in 6,4% cases, out of them 92,4% were cases of second cancers, in other cases the number of CN was more than two. 8% of cases ofprimary multiple cancers were presented by non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Mean age ofpersons with more than one diagnosis of cancer was 67 years. The relative risk of the detection of second CN (excepting NMSC) among persons with already diagnosed previous cancer was about 4 times higher in comparison in persons without diagnosis of solid cancer. Discussion. Detected solid tumors were proposed to be diagnosed in the order of their occurrence, but it cannot be excluded that in different latent periods of solid cancers of various localization this condition may fail to comply. The radiotherapy and the effect of dispanserization could play the essential role in the occurrence of second and subsequent cancers when the possibility of the detection of CN in a patient being under dispensary observation by oncologist is higher than in persons without dispensary observation. At the same time, the one possibility of carcinogenic effect of the first malignancy must not be excluded. Conclusions. Cancer risk among nuclear workers who have previous malignancy was 4 times higher in comparison with workers who had no previous diagnosis of cancer.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):190-194
pages 190-194 views

The features of the course of the disease in patients with primary metastatic lymph nodes of the neck

Kulikov E.P., Zakharkina T.V., Ryazantsev M.E., Zaytsev M.B., Sashina E.L.


In this report there are presented two clinical cases, describing the heterogeneity of the course of the disease in patients with primary metastatic lymph nodes of the neck. The clinical picture of these patients was shown to be atypical and requires not only a detailed search of initial focus at the first visit of the patient, but also a more careful examination in the course of future follow-up observation.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):195-197
pages 195-197 views

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcemic type: a case report

Ashrafyan L.A., Panshin G.A., Bychkov Y.M., Babaeva N.A., Bolshakova S.A.


The small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare tumor with the very modest prognosis. It usually occurs in young women and in two-thirds of cases is associated with hypercalcemia. The treatment combines surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Case Presentation. We report a case of small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type in a young Russian woman of 33 years in whom the first manifestations were abdominal pain syndrome. A laparotomy was performed by radical surgery. There were performed 4 courses of chemotherapy, and then conventionally radical operation was executed. Histologically, the diagnosis was confirmed. There was performed palliative chemotherapy, the patient’s death occurred within 10 months after making of the diagnosis. Conclusion. Hypercalcemic type of ovarian cancer is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):198-200
pages 198-200 views

Plasminogen and PAI-1 activators in tissues of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

Kit O.I., Kolesnikov E.N., Frantsiyants E.M., Kozlova L.S., Pogorelova Y.A., Cheryarina N.D., Chugunova N.S.


Aim. The purpose of the study was to perform the comparative analysis of the components ofplasminogen activation system - uPA and tPA, and their inhibitor PAI-1 in tissues of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tissues of removed primary both EA (n=9, st II, G2, T2-3N0-1M0-1) and SCC (n=27, st II, G2, T2-3N0-1M0-1) were studied by ELISA. Results. EA and SCC tumor tissues showed a sharp increase in both uPA forms and in PAI-1, in EA tissue there was noted a decrease in all tPA and in SCC tissue there was seen a decline in tPA-act, compared to the resection line (RL). Perifocal zone of EA showed diminished uPA-Ag, all tPA, increased uPA-act and all PAI-1, compared to the RL. uPA and PAI-1 play an important role in progression of both SCC and EA. The role of tPA requires the further studying, but in SCC perifocal zone its impact may be rather harmful than protective. tPA-Ag/tPA-act balance was increased in SCC tissue only, while in other samples it was decreased (p<0.01) or had a clear tendency to decrease (p≤0.05), compared to RL area. Conclusions. 1. Concentrations of uPA-act and PAI-1 in tumors and surrounding tissues were significantly higher than in RL in both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma; the imbalance between antigen and active uPA forms and PAI-1 was observed in all the cases. 2. tPA concentration was higher in adenocarcinoma RL than in tumor and its perifocal zone, while in perifocal zone of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus it was higher than in other tissue samples. 3. uPA, PAI-1 and probably tPA can become the targets for the therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):201-206
pages 201-206 views

Canceromatosis modelling of intraperitoneal implantation of solid tumours in mice or human

Andronova N.V., Smirnova G.B., Borisova J.A., Kalish'yan M.S., Treshchalina E.M.


In the work there are described the parameters of a canceromatosis by the intraperitoneal implantation of the solid tumors: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) to syngeneic regular males of C57Bl6j mice and human subcutaneous breast cancer (BC) xenografts BC-1 to immunodeficient females of mice Balb/c nude. There was shown aggressive LLC canceromatosis which was realized as the solid tumor nodule (from 30-40 singles to the total) growths on a peritoneum (parietal or visceral) and a mesenteries or of the intestinal lymphoid nodules, development of space-occupying ascites (to 3.0 ml), and death of mice for 12-14 days. This model is characterized as moderately sensitive to paclitaxel (inhibition of tumor growth by 84% and increasing of life span of mice up to 46%). BC-1 canceromatosis was low aggressive with development of the single (solitary) solid tumor nodule on a peritoneum in the place of implantation and reaching within 3 weeks of average volume to 300 mm3 without accumulation of ascites, decreasing of the life span or death of mice. This model is characterized as moderately sensitive to paclitaxel with inhibition of the tumor growth by 85%. The obtained data give the ground to consider that both intraperitoneal solid tumors represent themselves to be sensitive to systemic chemotherapy for the model of canceromatosis differing in various aggressiveness of a course and specific symptomatics of the process. For an aggressive LLC canceromatosis the evidential base of efficiency has to be formed on the basis of inhibition of growth of the peritoneal tumor nodules in peritoneal cavity and accumulation ofperitoneal ascites, and also the increase of the mice life span, for a nonaggressive BC-1 canceromatosis - inhibition of the growth of the peritoneal tumor nodule.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):207-211
pages 207-211 views

Phyto-anti-estrogens are potential selective modifiers of biological reactions in breast cancer

Borisova J.A., Smirnova G.B., Shubina I.Z., Shprakh Z.S., Treshchalina E.M.


The review analyzes up-to-date information about specific characteristics of anti-estrogen therapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action with regard to present knowledge of endocrine therapy for estrogen-positive breast cancer (ER+ BC). The paper presents some agents for anti-estrogen therapy of breast cancer - aromatase inhibitors and selective modifiers of biological reactions (SMBR) and their mechanisms of anti-proliferative action. The authors describe significant therapeutic and side effects as well as different options for anti-estrogen combinations. Special emphasis is made on national herbal estrogens/anti-estrogens that have no toxicity associated with the well-known SMBRs. The review presents the structure and characteristics of a perspective phyto-anti-estrogen sekoizolaricirezinol (SEKO), which demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity with no pro-estrogen action in the in vivo models of ER+ BC.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):212-219
pages 212-219 views

Role of androgen receptors in various molecular subtypes of breast cancer

Ryabchikov D.A., Vorotnikov I.K., Chkhikvadze N.V., Titov K.S., Krasnorutskiy A.V.


The article presents a literature review on the determination of androgen receptors in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The review considers the role of androgen receptors in the study of the prognosis of the disease and the search for additional approaches to the treatment of breast cancer especially for basal like subtypes.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(4):220-224
pages 220-224 views

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