Vol 17, No 2 (2012)

Articles

EDEMATOUS FORM OF BREAST CANCER

Saribekyan E.K.

Abstract

By examining the data available in the literature and their findings, the author draws the conclusion that skin and tissue edema in the breast is due to the biological feature of its tumor and the features of lymph and blood circulation in the perifocal area and breast. Primary edema should be considered to mean skin edema without an underlying tumor, which may designed as category T4b and T4d in the TNM classification. Cases of concomitant edema due to universal causes (major tumor resolution, skin tumor ingrowth with ulceration and inflammation) should be referred to as secondary edema. Due to the pronounced features of its development and treatment policy, breast cancer with primary edema should be identified as a separate group (for example, inflammatory cancer has been classified as T4d), rather than be considered with cases of skin ulceration designated the index T4b of Stage IIIB in the international TNM classification.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):4-8
pages 4-8 views

REDUCING A POSTOPERATIVE RADIATION DOSE IN THE COMBINED-MODALITY TREATMENT OF LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER

Pankratova Y.A., Khmelevsky E.V., Dobrovolskaya N.Y.

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of traditional versus low-dose postmastectomy chest radiation according to local control criteria, overall and relapse-free survival rates, and the frequency of postradiation cardiac complications. The efficiency of treatment was compared in two groups of patients with Stages II-IIIB breast cancer: 1) 129 patients who received normal-dose (50 Gy in 25 fractions applied to the chest) radiotherapy (RT) and 2) 82 patients who had low-dose (40 Gy in 20 fractions applied to the chest) RT. The latter followed Madden mastectomy in all cases. In all the patients, regional areas were irradiated with standard doses of 46-50 Gy concurrently with chest radiation. The frequency and quality of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were similar in the groups. The median follow-up was 111 and 95 months in each group, respectively. In the normal- and low-dose RT groups, 5-year actuarial local-regional progression rates were 6.2±2.1 and 3.7±2.1%, respectively (p = 0.4). In Groups 1 and 2, late metastases were detected in 34.6±4.2 and 19.5±4.4%, respectively (p < 0.05). Five-year actuarial relapse-free survival was 71.5±6.4% in the low-dose RT group and 53.5±5.4% in the normal-dose RT one, respectively (p = 0.07). Five-year overall survival was 65.3±5.6 and 72.2±6.3%, respectively (p = 0.08). The patients with a left-sided tumor process were noted to have late ECG cardiac changes in 55±11.1% of cases in the low-dose RT group and in 75±9.7% in the normal-dose RT one (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that there are no statistically significant differences in the rates of local-regional progression, overall and relapse-free survival in the normal- and low-dose RT groups. The proposed procedure for reduced postmastectomy chest radiation in combination with current chemotherapy regimens can reduce the risk of cardiac toxicity, without decreasing the therapeutic effectiveness characteristic of the traditional procedure.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):8-13
pages 8-13 views

USE OF A MESH IMPLANT IN COMBINATION WITH A SILICONE ENDOPROSTHESIS DURING ONE-STAGE BREAST RECONSTRUCTION AFTER SUBCUTANEOUS MASTECTOMY

Pak D.D., Troshenkov E.A., Petrovsky D.A.

Abstract

The paper describes experience with 35 primary reconstructive operations using mesh implants and silicone endoprostheses in patients with breast cancer after subcutaneous mastectomy. The authors propose an original option for forming a combined pocket for the silicone endoprosthesis consisting of the pectoralis major and a composite mesh - a mesh implant. The pocket volume allows one to place an endoprosthesis up to 335 cm 3, which is sufficient to repair small-to-medium-sized breasts. The proposed procedure ensures good cosmetic and functional results.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):13-17
pages 13-17 views

ROLE OF EPITHELIAL ANTIGEN BER-EP4 IN THE STUDY OF EXUDATES FROM SEROUS SACS

Volchenko N.N., Borisova O.V.

Abstract

Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation Serous exudates with epithelial antigen BER-EP4 were studied using immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and immunocytochemical methods and by a laser flow cytoflurometric technique. Up-to-date high-technologies make it possible to detect few tumor complexes in the exudate at early metastatic stages, which are undetectable by the routine cytological assay and to decrease the rate of hyperdiagnosis of a tumor process. The high efficiency and rapidity of immunofluorescence study of exudates are shown to establish the extent of the tumor process during urgent intraoperative studies.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):18-22
pages 18-22 views

IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MUC1 MUCIN IN THE CERVICAL EPITHELIUM

Karmakova T.A., Yakubovskaya R.I., Trushina O.I., Novikova E.G., Volchenko N.N., Melnikova V.Y., Vorontsova M.S., Balakhontseva O.S.

Abstract

Immunocytochemical (ICC) staining using the monoclonal antibody ICO25 was performed to examine MUC1 mucin expression in the cervical smears obtained from healthy women (34), patients having benign cervical disease (n = 22), low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1, n = 3), high-grade CIN (CIN2-3, n = 32), early squamous cervical cancer (SCC, n = 12), and from those after organ-saving treatment (n = 66). In CIN2-3 and SCC, atypical squamous epithelial cells were shown to be detectable by ICO24 ICC staining in the vast majority (95%) of cases. Negative staining of dyskaryotic naked nuclei was observed in 2 cases. Staining heterogeneity was noted in SCC. ICC staining allowed efficient detection of MUC1-positive dyskaryotic cells in the smears with a pronounced inflammatory background and a high blood cell count. There was a correlation between the detection of basal and parabasal cells having a depolarized MUC1 expression pattern onto the surface membrane and the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus. ICO25 staining can be a promising way to enhance the sensitivity of cytological diagnosis of cervical neoplasias and to assess the risk and progression of pathological cervical epithelial changes.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):23-28
pages 23-28 views

MATURE ANTERIOR UPPER MEDIASTINAL TERATOMA COMPLICATED BY PERFORATION INTO THE LUNG

Pikin O.V., Kolbanov K.I., Makanin M.A., Kazakevich V.I., Rudakov R.V., Korolev A.V.

Abstract

The paper describes a rare case of mature mediastinal teratoma complicated by perforation into the lung. It shows the feasibilities of chest ultrasound study in the preoperative diagnosis of this complication. Radical surgical intervention is the method of choice for treating this category of patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):29-31
pages 29-31 views

HPV-ASSOCIATED OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER (A CLINICAL CASE)

Gevorkov A.R., Boiko A.V., Chernichenko A.V., Daryalova S.L., Zavalishina L.E., Ryazantseva A.A., Sokolov V.V., Gladyshev A.A.

Abstract

In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal tumors have been more frequently detected in the world. Their proportion is 20 to 90% depending on the spread of smoking and the rate of alcohol consumption in the country conducting a study. On the other hand, the proportion of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and pharyngeal mucosae is higher in the countries loyal to sexual norms. According to recent data, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer should be considered as an individual nosological entity characterized by a tendency to regional metastases generally in relatively small primary tumors and by a high sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The paper describes the experience in successfully treating a 56-year-old patient with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer and HPV infection.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):31-34
pages 31-34 views

PREDICTORS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RADIATION/CHEMORADIATION TREATMENT FOR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK

Gevorkov A.R., Boiko A.V., Zavalishina L.E., Chernichenko A.V.

Abstract

Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia The role of radiotherapy in treating head and neck tumors is on the increase, which is associated with a tendency for organ-saving treatment and with a need for a combination and comprehensive approach in case of locally advanced cancer. At the same time, only group prediction is already insufficient in clinical practice to define adequate treatment for these patients; and an individual approach to defining indications for radiotherapy is increasingly greater importance. Despite the fact that the generally accepted clinical and morphological parameters are rather informative in choosing an adequate local and systemic treatment; however, they are insufficiently individual. There is a need for putting into practice the new predictors of the efficiency of radiotherapy, which make it possible to optimize treatment policy, thus improving its results.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):34-38
pages 34-38 views

ROLE OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI

Rubtsova N.A., Novikova E.G., Puzakov K.B., Antipov V.A.

Abstract

Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia The review shows the capacities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri. It also gives the results of analyzing the accuracy of MRI for the preoperative estimation of tumor extent, including for the detection of parametric fat invasion, versus those of clinical examination and other medical visualization methods.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):39-45
pages 39-45 views

RECONSTRUCTIVE PLASTIC SURGERY FOR BREAST CANCER

Volchenko A.A., Pak D.D.

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm in women. Radical mastectomy is an integral component of its treatment, but this increases survival rates and the number of disabled persons. Emphasis has been recently made on the improvement of quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Today breast reconstructive surgery is an important component in the general treatment regimen. Breast reconstruction ameliorates psychological trauma associated with mastectomy; the women lose a feeling of mutilation, depression, and apprehension of their femininity. A variety of modifications and options for reconstructive interventions creates the choice problem to be solved together with the patient.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):46-49
pages 46-49 views

ANTIONCONEURAL ANTIBODIES AND PARANEOPLASTIC NEUROLOGICAL SYNDROME

Shnaider N.A., Dykhno Y.A., Ezhikova V.V., Kantimirova E.A.

Abstract

The review presents data on the role of tumor antigens and antionconeural antibodies in the development of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):49-53
pages 49-53 views

CELL, RADIATION, AND CARCINOGENESIS

Pavlov A.S.

Abstract

It has been suggested that there is an exceptional (unique) mechanism for incorporation into the genome of a reserve somatic cell during repair of radiation-induced DNA damages and that the latter cannot be included during replication. There are various cellular reproductive potentials (CRP) in different body anatomic systems, which differ in high radiosensitivity and resistance to carcinogenesis. As CRP is depleted and reproductive renewal is impossible, the reparative mechanism is used, which causes an increase in carcinogenesis rates. Whether carcinogenic signs can be involved with their verified presence in the human body and whether the cell genome contains new carcinogenic signs, such fibrolysis and osteolysis, are considered.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2012;17(2):54-56
pages 54-56 views

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