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Vol 26, No 3 (2021)

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Original Study Articles

Anthropometric and topometric characterization of patients with breast cancer

Zyuzyukina A.V., Gasymly D.D., Komissarova V.A., Chuyashenko A.A., Zukov R.A.


Background: Anthropometry is one of the simplest and most accessible methods. Breast cancer is largely associated with anthropometric indicators, such as weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference.

Aims: To examine the anthropometric and topometric characteristics of the mammary glands of patients with breast cancer.

Materials and Methods: A total of 260 patients with breast cancer were examined from 2019 to 2021 in the Department of Onco-mammological Surgery of the A.I. Kryzhanovsky Krasnoyarsk Regional Oncological Dispensary. Anthropometric examination was conducted according to the classical method, and parameters such as height and weight were obtained. Organometric measurements were conducted according to the Body Logic System (Mentor Medical Systems B. V., USA), developed by Professor Dr. Hammond for Mentor, a silicone implant manufacturer.

Results: In the study group, the average height, weight, and body mass index were 163 (158–168) cm, 75 (65–86) kg, and 28.96 (24–32.87) kg/m2, respectively. A comparative analysis of the main anthropometric data of patients with breast cancer showed relatively higher body length values in the young adult group and conversely smaller values in women in the senile period, as well as the average body mass index and body mass index in the older group. In women, the average chest circumference of the mammary gland in the middle-aged group decreased by 9 cm in the older period and by 6 cm in the senile period. Similar changes were found in the chest circumference at the level of the nipples. In women, the average values in the middle-aged group decreased by 9.5 cm in the older period and by 4 cm in the senile period. The distance from the jugular notch to the nipple of the right breast showed significantly (p <0.05) higher values in the older group (by 6 cm) and senile group (by 4.7 cm) than in the young adult group and between the middle-aged group and older group (by 4 cm) and in the senile (by 2.7 cm) group. Similar changes were found on the left breast in the older group (by 5.75 cm) and senile group (by 5.25 cm) compared with young adult group and between the middle-aged group and older group (by 4 cm) and senile (by 3.5 cm) group. The distance from the level of the middle of the clavicle to the nipples showed significantly (p <0.05) lower values of the right and left mammary glands in the your adult group than in other age groups. The intermammary distance was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the middle-aged group (by 0.5 cm) than in the older and senile groups.

Conclusion: Most studies on breast anthropometry focus on plastic surgery because clear anthropometric measurements of the breasts and their relative positions based on fixed skeletal and soft tissue landmarks are useful for assessing the condition of the patients preoperatively and for evaluating breast aesthetics postoperatively. Future studies in clinical practice should identify women with a high risk of breast cancer based on anthropometric parameters.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(3):77-84
pages 77-84 views

Traditional and liquid-based cytology in the diagnosis of non-tumor lesions and endometrial tumors

Karpova A., Shabalova I.P., Sozaeva L.G.


BACKGROUND: Morphological examination of materials obtained during endometrial aspiration biopsy or diagnostic curettage is an integral part in the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies; however, these manipulations are invasive and have additional surgical and anesthetic risks. Therefore, the improvement of endometrial cytological examination is of great interest to minimize associated risks with high diagnostic potential. Currently, traditional cytology (TC) and liquid-based cytology (LBC) are employed for the morphological diagnosis of diseases of various localizations, but the possibilities of their combined use are insufficiently explored.

AIMS: To improve the cytological diagnosis of endometrial tumors and non-tumor lesions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 101 patients aged 22–79 years with endometrial pathologies and indications for surgical treatment and routine histological examination of operative specimen. Endometrial surface scrapings obtained during hysteroscopy (n=73) and postoperative specimen (n=28) were used for cytological examination. A portion of the obtained specimen was immediately applied to a TC slide, and the rest was placed in a vial with preserving medium for LBC. Statistical processing of the results was performed according to conventional methods using StatTech v. 2.8.8 (Stattech LLC, Russia).

RESULTS: Uninformative data were obtained in 9.9% of the cases in the TC and in 14.9% of cases in LC of uterine cavity specimens. The combined use of TC and LC reduced the number of observations with inadequate specimen to 6.9%. The presence of atypia in the cytological specimen (threshold value of atypical hyperplasia) correlated with the results of the histological examination (p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of TC and LC allows increasing the number of observations with adequate specimens, improving the accessible and minimally invasive diagnosis of proliferative conditions and tumors.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(3):85-92
pages 85-92 views


Assessment of the quality of life of patients with cancer: Current state of the problem

Alekseeva A.


The successes of modern medicine in the treatment of malignant neoplasms have led to increased interest in the study of quality of life (QOL), which is considered one of the endpoints of modern clinical research in oncology. This study aimed to identify the main features of the current state and patterns of further development in assessing the QOL of patients with cancer. This study was based on a bibliographic search in PubMed and Google Scholar. A literature search was conducted using pairs of keywords “quality of life–oncology,” “quality of life–cancer,” “quality of life–questionnaires–oncology,” “patient-reported outcome (PRO)–oncology,” and “quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)–oncology” for articles published from 2017 to 2022 in Russian and English. Further, the articles were identified manually through the article link lists. PROs are currently considered the generally accepted standard for collecting data on the subjective perception of patients with cancer regarding their health status. Numerous questionnaires for assessing QOL are available, but the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire are preferred. The combination of advanced technologies allows the collection of more reliable PRO data. Thus, unified approaches for the application of PRO results in large clinical trials are necessary.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(3):93-100
pages 93-100 views

Case Reports

Double threat: Ovarian cancer and thrombotic complications

Mansurova A.S., Krasilnikov S.E., Voitcitckii V.E.


Currently, patients with cancer are undoubtedly more likely to develop thrombosis and thromboembolism. In some cases, symptoms of thrombotic complications could be the first signs of a malignant tumor. Thus, the treatment of such patients should follow two directions: treatment of cancer and maintenance therapy aimed at coagulopathy correction. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies are high priorities in the treatment of these conditions; however, their adverse effects should not be forgotten–high risk of bleeding. There is a very fine line between the risks of thromboembolic complications and bleeding; both conditions can threaten the patient’s life. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach, timing, and balanced treatment can save patients’ lives.

Russian Journal of Oncology. 2021;26(3):101-106
pages 101-106 views

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