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Vol 21, No 5 (2016)

Articles

Serous ovarian borderline tumors: modern classification and biology

Davydova I.Y., Kuznetsov V.V., Karseladze A.I., Meshcheryakova L.A.

Abstract

In this article there are considered current views on biology of ovarian serous borderline tumors, there is presented a modern histological classification of 2014, which has undergone some changes. Variants of serous borderline tumors are described in terms of morphology, clinical course and prognosis. Also there is discussed the issue of the pathogenesis in the development of ovarian borderline tumors, the contribution of gene mutations in the occurrence of borderline, poorly or well differentiated ovarian tumors. There are described in details features of morphology of serous borderline tumors, the interrelationship of their occurrence and dedifferentiation in dependence on the molecular and genetic deteriorations. In the article there is considered the microinvasive version of the serous borderline tumors and specified criteria for the establishment of this diagnosis. There are given the definition and characterization of micropapillary serous borderline tumors, there is discussed their impact on the course of the disease and prognosis. The issue of terminology is considered in terms of current views and history.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):228-232
pages 228-232 views

Efficacy of surgical treatment of patients with localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors

Arkhiri P.P., Stilidi I.S., Poddubnaya I.V., Nered S.N., Nikulin M.P., Bokhyan V.Y., Abu-Khaydar O.B., Peregorodiev I.N., Melikov S.A., Tsymzhitova N.T.

Abstract

The main method of the treatment of patients with localized and locally advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) currently remains to be surgical, but its effectiveness is limited and determined by the degree of local expansion of the disease and radicality of the surgery. Before the era of the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in the treatment of GIST patients the overall 5-year survival after radical surgery in the group of patients with size of the tumor larger than 10 cm failed to exceed 20%. For the time present with the comprehensive approach to the treatment indices of survival in these patients have significantly improved. Overall 5-year survival in patients with a high risk of disease progression reaches 93%. The most important prognostic factors in patients with primary localized GIST are: the size of the primary tumor, mitotic index, tumor location, mutation status and the morphological variant of the cellular structure of GIST.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):233-237
pages 233-237 views

The role of preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer metastases in the liver with the lack of RAS mutations

Lazarev A.F., Mamontov K.G., Kotelnikov A.G., Khays S.L., Lubennikov V.A.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, occupying the third place in the world among malignant tumors morbidity rate and the 4th place on the causes of death. Every year in the world there are diagnosed more than 1.3 millions of new cases of the disease. The mortality rate continues to be one of the most common causes in the structure of cancer incidence. In Russia, each year there are diagnosed more than 60 thousands of new cases of colorectal cancer. For the last time the incidence increased by 11%, out of them more than 17 thousands patients show newly diagnosed distant metastases. In the absolute majority of cases metastases in the liver are firstly detected in 2-3 years. Liver is the organ- the most commonly affected by metastases. Methods of medicinal treatment of CRC metastases are of great importance and allowed to greatly improve the life expectancy of patients. Median overall survival (OS) is 35-40 months. The one of the last achievement of the modern drug therapy of metastatic CRC was the appearance of the preparation Cetuximab. Blocking of the KRAS gene is a key compartment of the signaling pathways that transmit extracellular growth signals from the surface of the cell to the nucleus. Further signals are transmitted via the cascade into the cellular nucleus, regulating cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Results of the research of PRIME, PEAK and FIRE-3 confirm the advantage of supplement ofpanitumumab or cetuximab to chemotherapy regimens FOLFOX or FOLFIRI in patients with wild-type Ras.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):238-243
pages 238-243 views

Clinical case of palliative antegrade surgical treatment of cancer of the major duodenal papilla

Vinnik Y.S., Serova E.V., Chernykh D.A., Kovalev A.V., Stratovich D.V., Prusov I.A.

Abstract

In the structure of malignant tumors, accompanied by obstructive jaundice, there are most occurred such as the lesion of the pancreas (47%), bile duct cancer (20%) also papillary carcinoma (MDP) and gall bladder cancer (about 15%). In the case of inoperable tumor, in elderly and senile patients with severe concomitant somatic pathology, there are indicated palliative interventions as follows: percutaneous transhepatic external or external-internal drainage of the biliary tract with possible subsequent percutaneous transhepatic stenting of the common bile duct. Under our observation there was a patient of 75 years with verified major duodenal papilla cancer, complicated by obstructive jaundice, to whom as the first step there was performed percutaneous transhepatic external-internal drainage of the biliary tract, and as the second one - percutaneous transhepatic stenting of the common bile duct.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):244-249
pages 244-249 views

Effect of hyperthermia on the viability and proliferative activity of tumor cells

Anisimova N.Y., Kiselevskiy M.V., Abdullaev A.G., Malakhova N.V., Sitdikova S.M., Polotskiy B.E., Davydov M.M.

Abstract

Introduction. Results of the systemic chemotherapy in the peritoneum canceromatosis are unsatisfactory because of poor penetration of anticancer drugs in serous cavities due to the presence ofperitoneal-plasma barrier. One of the possible ways to enhance the action cytostatic agents is the use of chemotherapy and hyperthermia, which, according to some data, has an own cytotoxic effect. The purpose of the study. The study of the effect ofdifferent modes of hyperthermia on the physiological activity of transplantable lines of tumor and non-transformed cells. Results. Analysis of the impact of hyperthermia on the physiological activity of transplantable lines of tumor and the non-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that along with the gain in the level and time of the temperature exposure as the degree of damage as tumor cell mortality rate increases. In this study the most effective treatment was as follows: the temperature is above 45°C with the exposure of more than 2 hours, which is difficult to achieve in practice due to the limited tolerance of healthy tissues. Conclusion. With the use of hyperthermia in monoregimen it is not possible to achieve effective levels of the temperature impact, which could hardly have a significant inhibitory effect on tumor cells.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):250-252
pages 250-252 views

Gender differences in the function of thyroid gland in the dynamics of the growth of transplantable B16/F10 melanoma in mice

Kit O.I., Frantsiyants E.M., Bandovkina V.A., Cheryarina N.D.

Abstract

Skin melanoma is the one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an unpredictable course. Rapid proliferation and high metastatic potential can be caused by a high neuroendocrine activity. The thyroid gland discharges a wide range of functions in the body, by regulating metabolism, participating in adaptation and anti-tumor protection and influencing proliferation, angiogenesis and migration of cells. The study of thyroid activity and local saturation of the skin, tumor and surrounding tissues with thyroid hormones in the dynamics of the growth of experimental В16/F10 melanoma in mice of both genders revealed gender differences in thyroid homeostasis. Females showed the syndrome of low thyroid hormone levels - so-called «low T3/low T4» - diagnosed by the level of fractions of free hormone with the deterioration in correlationships between the level of peripheral hormones and TSH. Over the growth of melanoma in males there was developed severe hypothyroidism, not controlled by the higher regulating structures, accompanied by the synthesis and/or capture of thyroxine into the tumor. Saturation of the tumor tissue with thyroxine correlated with the gender and survival of animals. The revealed differences in thyroid status should be taken into account during the treatment patients with melanoma.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):253-258
pages 253-258 views

Results of transarterial chemoembolization on rats with grafted hepatocellular cancer of liver

Treshalina H.M., Yakunina M.N., Fadeev A.Y., Smirnova G.B., Borisova J.A., Kalishyan M.S., Dolgushin B.I., Virshke E.R., Kosirev V.Y.

Abstract

Modeling of a transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is carried out on rats (n = 6) with hepatocellular cancer of liver RS1 (Vcp = 4.5 cm3) which has developed in muscles of the leg (i.m.). Sensitivity of a tumor to the single introduction of substance of doxorubicine (sDOX) in maximum tolerated doses (MTD) of 5-12 mg/kg with the achievement of significantly tumor growth inhibition on 55-77% (p = 0.001) is previously shown. TACE is executed with the elastic polyvinyl alcohol microspheres in size of 0.2 mm in diameter loaded with doxorubicine (MS/sDOX) with the release within 7 days. MS/sDOX in the volume of 0.034-0.1 ml (a cumulative dose of sDOX of 3.3-10.5 mg/kg) was introduced into a femoral artery (i/a) with a diameter of 0.16 mm under control of an embolization (MS or arterial ligature) and chemotherapy (sDOX). TACE gave rise in the cytoreductive effect of the tumor nodule by 67% (T/C = 33%, p = 0.0004) with the single regression and the development of the grade 1 therapeutical pathomorphosis (TP). The therapeutic gain of MC/sDOX manifested in coupled with the cytoreduction the decline of the tumor growth rate («т» = 11-16 against 1.9-2.0 days in the control group) and at the equal inhibiting action with sDOX dose reduced by 20% against MTD. Side effects of TACE (a necrosis of soft tissues, 7th-16th days) were not associated with the full stagnation of a regional blood flow due to the discrepancy of MS to diameter of the artery. The whole of the revealed effects has allowed to consider the modeling of i/m tumor on rats to be suitable for the screening of the specific activity of agents clients for TACE. The preclinical study of the method is rational to execute on the corresponding model on large animals with regional artery of the sufficient cross section of the vessel permitting to perform TACE satisfactory.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):259-263
pages 259-263 views

Research of the survey patients about psychosocial aspects of outpatient cancer care in Moscow (Russian Federation)

Kogoniya L.M., Byakhov M.Y., Fedotov A.Y., Orlando M., Minasyan A.A., Sholokhova E.A.

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the study is the evaluation ofpsychosocial and medico-social aspects of outpatient cancer care by patients in Russian Federation for the time present. Material and Methods. There was executed a sociological survey of consecutively included oncological patients who received chemotherapy or hormonal therapy at two medical institutions in Russia from May 2009 to May 2011. Results. A total of 350 oncological patients participated in the study. The majority of participants (79.7%) were females, the age of the majority of patients ((79.7%)) varied between 50 and 79 years. The most common primary lesion type was breast cancer (51.1%). 17.3% of patients reported that they felt fear, and this number increased to 37.5% in the aged group of from 40 to 49 years. A substantial number of patients (24.0%) felt uncertainty over outcome of their disease and 5.0% reported a feeling of hopelessness. A part of surveyed patients (21.7%) would like to get an understandable instructions in the form of the booklet as on the organization of everyday living as about their disease. 10.9% of patients noted that they had insufficient information about their disease and 18.8% of cases would like to know more about their diagnosis. Approximately the one-third ofparticipants reported about the improvement of the attitude of their spouses (31.7%) and children (32.0%) after the establishment of the oncological diagnosis. Conclusions. Diagnosis of the oncological disease was frequently associated with feelings of discomfort andfear that it might negatively impact on the quality of life in patients and their families. These feelings and the impact may be reduced by virtue of more effective communication and provision of information concerning the disease. Results of the performed two-center survey indicate to the need for elevation of the efficacy of communication between the patient and physician.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):264-270
pages 264-270 views

Epidemiological aspects of the prevalence of thyroid cancer in the Azerbaijan Republic over the period of 2009-2015

Mardanli F.A., Aliyev A.D., Guliyev N.A., Aliyeva I.D., Aliyeva A.M.

Abstract

Analysis of the prevalence of thyroid gland cancer (TGC) of the population of Azerbaijan over the period 2009-2015 showed a relatively unfavorable situation, as evidenced by the steady rise in the morbidity rate of this nosology. Over 7 years, there was noted the gain in coefficients of extensivity and intensity of the given pathology among the population of the Republic. Prevalence factor for TGC has increased till 2015 by almost 2 times (11.7 0/0000 vs. 5.20/0000). The peak of the incidence corresponds to the age group of 50-59 years (0.60/0000). Five-year survival for this nosology has tended to the decrease, and varied in the range of from 36.3% to 29.0%.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):271-274
pages 271-274 views

Fertility problems in patients with germ cell tumors

Zhukovskaya E.V.

Abstract

This review highlights some of the aspects of the fertility in patients with germ cell tumors. This problem appears to be the very actual problem because of the possible impact not only anticancer therapy, but the tumor itself, coming from the human gonadal germ cells on the fertility. The individual histological types have been characterized by age and gender features. In patients with germ cell tumors, infertility is more common than in patients with other malignancies. Feasibility of the germ cell sampling procedure: the sperm and possibly, ovum, before the treatment in order to preserve the reproductive function of cured patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(5):275-280
pages 275-280 views

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