Vol 21, No 1-2 (2016)

Articles

Stabilization of the disease as an important factor in the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment and prognosis of survival for cancer patients

Bychkov M.B., Bagrova S.G., Karpenko T.D.

Abstract

Currently, the effectiveness of treatment is assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. The stabilization of the disease is the one of the results of the treatment. This term means a slight growth or regression of the tumor without the appearance of new lesions, when it is impossible to assign these changes neither to the progression of the disease nor to partial regression, but in any case stabilization of disease is evaluated as ineffective treatment. But the stabilization of the disease often leads to the improvement of the quality of life, slowdown in the growth of the tumor and metastasis and thereby to the win in terms of life expectancy. The purpose of the study. A study of the concept of ‘stabilization of the disease ’ as a criterion that determines the control of tumor growth. Methods. There was performed an analysis of various scientific works on the study of the efficiency of the treatment of solid tumors: ovarian cancer, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colon cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer. Conclusion. Stabilization of the disease is an important criterion for the evaluation of the antitumor treatment in patients and has the important prognostic value.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):6-10
pages 6-10 views

Morbidity, mortality, long-term outcomes and sequelae of the treatment of cancer patients in different countries of the world

Garin A.M., Bazin I.S.

Abstract

Due to the gain in the average life expectancy in developed countries there is increased the incidence rate of malignant neoplasms. According to the forecast of the USA National Cancer Institute in the next 20 years every 2nd American man and every third American woman will get sick with cancer, and therefore oncology should be considered to be the main medical specialty. Molecular characterization of tumors will become routine, and it will provide an opportunity via screening to detect precancerous abnormalities and early forms of cancer. Surgery will become mostly organsaving modality, radical mutilating surgery will go down in history, traditional chemotherapy with low selectivity of action will send to the glue factory. In the arsenal there will stay well-aimed «targeted» drugs hitting right on target mechanisms of the uncontrolled growth of tumor cells and their dissemination.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):11-17
pages 11-17 views

Modern possibilities of individualization of drug therapy for breast cancer

Perevodchikova N.I., Stenina M.B.

Abstract

N the article there are considered outputs of the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015, on the possibilities of improving the management of early breast cancer (BC) as well as the last most important results of clinical trials with antitumor drugs in advanced BC.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):18-25
pages 18-25 views

Salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy with the use of new technologies in radiation oncology

Tkachev S.I., Matveev V.B., Bulychkin P.V.

Abstract

Introduction: prostate cancer (PCa) is the second cancer after lung one among all males. The main treatmentfor patients with localized prostate cancer is a radical prostatectomy (RP). After RP PCa occurs in patients at the T1-T2 stage - in 25 - 35% of all cases and in patients at the T3 stage - in 33.5 - 66% of all cases. Currently, one of the treatment options for patients with recurrence PCa after RP is a «salvage» radiation therapy. Materials and methods: medical records of 59 patients with PCa recurrence after radical prostatectomy (pT1-3pN0M0) were analyzed. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 25 (42,4%) and clinical recurrence in 34 (57,6%) patients. Radiotherapy have been prescribed to the regional lymphatic nodes to 44,0 Gy of 2,0 Gy each, to the prostate bed to 66,0 Gy of 2,0 Gy each and if the region of the clinical recurrence was identified - to 72 Gy of 2,0 Gy. Treatment was realized on linear electron accelerators using 3D technology radiotherapy: 3DCRT, IMRT, VMAT. Results: all 59 patients were treated by the «salvage» radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 48 months (24-91). Biochemical control w as achieved in 51 (86.4%) patients, locoregional control in 58 (98.3%) patients. No acute and late grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):26-31
pages 26-31 views

Comparative assessment of the short-term outcomes of robotassisted and laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

Kazantseva M.V., Murashko R.A., Uvarov I.B., Kaushansky V.B.

Abstract

Aim of the study. a comparative assessment of perioperative parameters and short-term outcomes of robotic and laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and methods. The results of surgical treatment of 101 patients with colorectal cancer underwent robotic (I group, n = 30) and laparoscopic (II group, n = 71) radical operations were analyzed. Results. Surgery duration in I group ranged from 140 to 420 minutes (on average 260,9 ± 80,1 min.), in II group - 120-465 minutes (on average - 243,3 ± 72,9 min.; P = 0,314). Blood loss in I group averaged on 100 ± 29,4 ml (50,0-150,0 ml) compared to 141,7 ± 76 ml in II group (the difference is statistically significant, P = 0,006). Conversion rate, complications, duration of the postoperative period did not have a statistically significant difference between the groups. The study of circular resection margins after robotic surgeries confirmed the radical intervention (R0-resection) in all cases. Differences in the number of lymph nodes (12-22) between the groups were not observed. Conclusion. Safety and efficacy of robotic colorectal surgery is comparable to laparoscopic surgery. Long-term results require further study.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):32-37
pages 32-37 views

Multidisciplinary approach to introducing new technologies and reconstructive surgeries in diagnosis and treatment of neoplastic diseases of the female reproductive organs

Cherenkov V.G., Petrov A.B., Strogenkov M.M., Chistjakova T.V., Tverezovskiy S.A., Ivanchenko O.G.

Abstract

Multidisciplinary approach that comprises the passing the examination in the exam room with the Pap test, questionnaires, ultrasound or digital mammography screening (MS) according to the age is a promising way of solving the problems with the visual localization of cancer, in particular with the reproductive organs. A minimally invasive removal technology that helped to determine the nature of tumor pathologies and remove those potentially dangerous hotbeds at the same time, was an important component of this secondary prevention system. Organ preserving and reconstructive surgeries (to our knowledge to 38,8% of patients with breast cancer and 95% of patients with vulvar cancer and vulvar dysplasia) have a positive effect not only on women’s life quality, but also become a good motivation for regular women’s screening in the region. Nothing is more convincing than the vivid example and “word of mouth”. A multidisciplinary approach to solving problem with the help of different specialists helped to reduce mortality rates for breast cancer by 30,03 ± 2,1% compared with 2009 (after the introduction of reconstructive surgery) and vulvar cancer by 83,3 ± 5,7% in comparison with 2005 (after the introduction of reconstructive surgery) at the continuing trend of increasing incidence rate. Cytological screening for dysplasia and early forms of cervical cancer needs a serious adjustment in accordance with the WHO recommendations and per capita accounting used in Russia.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):38-43
pages 38-43 views

Antegrade transhepatic papillodilatation and dislocation of bile stones in duodenum in management of cholelitiasis

Okhotnikov O.I., Yakovleva M.V., Kalutskiy A.P.

Abstract

Endobiliary antegrade stenting by self-expanding stents was performed in 32 patients with unresectable tumors of pancreatobiliary area. Uncoated stents were used in 15 patients with the proximal obstruction of the biliary tree. Uncoated stents prevent the blockade of lobar, segmental and cystic duct. Covered self-expanding stents were used in 17 cases of distal occlusion and obstruction of the peripapillary area. Antegrade stenting drainages of 8Fr were performed in a stepwise manner, consistently performing outside, then outward-internal drainage of the biliary tree, which was transformed into endobiliary stenting. Hybrid endobiliary antegrade stenting, which involves maintaining outward-internal drainage in lumen installed endobiliary stent, was performed in 14 patients. Hybrid antegrade stenting endobiliary allowed to keep endobiliary access to palliative care for all the time, monitor and correct the patency of the stent, by releasing from intraluminal sludge, to carry out a successful reparative stenting “stent to stent” in case of the invasion of tumor or scar tissue in to the lumen of the stent or around of its proximal end.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):44-46
pages 44-46 views

The results of screening for prostate cancer in men aged up to 55 years

Tarend D.T., Sukonko O.G., Krasny S.A., Semenov S.A., Karman A.V.

Abstract

In an analysis of 5414 men aged 45-55 years with a PSA level > 4 ng/ml, who underwent 6 point biopsy under ultrasound control, during the first round of screening 21 prostate cancer (PCa) cases were diagnosed, that accounted 0,4% of all examined men. To improve the diagnostic for PCa in the second round of screening it was proposed to decline PSA to 2,5 ng/ml as a threshold, and in case of its excess to perform 12points biopsy. Due to this modification the detection of PCa was increased by 1,85 times. Perhaps, introducing of this method will help to make early detection for PCa more effectively.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):47-50
pages 47-50 views

Multiparameter study of the immunophenotype of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, in cancer patients

Zabotina T.N., Korotkova O.V., Borunova A.A., Tabakov D.V., Bokin I.I., Panichenko I.V., Savostikova M.V., Samoylenko I.V., Tsiklauri V.T., Khakimova S.G., Kadagidze Z.G.

Abstract

For the first time in Russia the immunophenotype of tumor infiltrated lymphocytes (TIL) was investigated with the use of a method of quantitative flow cytometry. Samples from 104 patients, suffering from solid tumors (such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma and oral cavity squamous carcinoma), were analyzed in this investigation. In the difference of cytomorphological analysis, the method of flow cytometry identified TIL in 100% of cases. In the structure of CDS+Т- lymphocytes the ratio CD4/CD8 was equal to 1,1±0,1. Serial gating strategy allowed to assess minor subpopulations of regulatory T-lymphocytes CD45+CD4+CD127+low/neg and CD45+CD8+CD28-CD11b-. Regulatory mechanisms with involvement of CD8 T-cells played the main role in the generation of immune responses at the tissue level ofpatients, suffering from solid tumors, independent of nosological form of disease.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):51-54
pages 51-54 views

Immunological microenvironment in the clinical outcome of some solid tumors

Manikhas G.M., Kutukova S.I., Beliak N.P., Raskin G.A., Yaremenko A.I., Ivaskova Y.V., Ermakova T.S., Bozhor S.S.

Abstract

In our clinical research we studied levels of neutrophils, eosinophils and CD8 T-lymphocytes in stroma and microenvironment of the gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (33 patients: 15 with adenocarcinoma and 18 - with head and neck carcinoma). In gastric or colorectal adenocarcinoma expression of neutrophils directly correlates with regional lymph nodes involving, expression of CD8 has inversely correlation with differentiation of the tumor. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma neutrophils expression inversely correlates with keratinization, CD8 expression has inversely correlation with the size of primary tumor and stage, and has direct correlation with keratinization. This study allows to draw a conclusion about heterogeneity of solid tumors depending on immunology of microenvironment, moreover squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck is more “immunocompetent” structure. Correlation analysis revealed prognostic and predictive value of immunological microenvironment, because showed impact of expression of CD8, neutrophils and eosinophils on clinical outcome of gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):55-59
pages 55-59 views

Local tissue interleukine profile in breast cancer

Gantsev S.K., Bakiyev R.R.

Abstract

Breast cancer ranks first in the structure of oncological diseases in women in Russia and in the World. In recent years there have been numerous reports that the growth and progression of breast cancer and other tumors depend not only on their malignant potential, but also on stromal factors presented in the tumor microenvironment and intercellular interactions. The aim of our study was to evaluate intercellular interactions of the tissues surrounding the tumor, by means of determination of the locally interleukine profile. We have identified interleukine profiles of the axillary fatty tissue from the lesions and subcutaneous fat of the anterior chest wall, located at a maximum distance from the tumors, in stage IIa-IIIb breast cancer patients. As a result we came to a conclusion: the method based on the measurement of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and а-TNF levels in the tissues and in the blood allows to evaluate the immune processes occurring in the tissues surrounding the tumor; adipose tissue of various areas of breast cancer patients differs significantly according to the level of interleukines, which indicates that different involvement of adipose tissue in various areas of the immune response; there is a dependence of the local immune status of armpit adipose tissue on the expression of ER, PgR, Her2/neu on the surface of breast cancer cells.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):60-65
pages 60-65 views

The use of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies-EGFR blockers in the comprehensive treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with or without the surgical removal of metastases

Kit O.I., Vladimirova L.Y., Abramova N.A., Storozhakova A.E., Kalabanova E.A., Kabanov S.N., Popova I.L., Novoselova K.A., Tkhanovskaya N.M., Agieva A.A., Snezhko T.A., Samaneva N.Y.

Abstract

Clinical data on the efficacy and safety of cetuximab and panitumumab in 87 patients in the 1-4 lines of drug therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with wild-type RAS with and without surgical removal of metastases were analyzed. Anti-EGFR drugs were prescribed for patients in the first line of therapy in 64.4%, in the second line - 14.9%, in the third line - 13.8% and 6.9% - in the fourth line. 14.9% of patients continued anti-EGFR therapy after progression during 2-3 lines (with the change of cytostatics). The use of anti-EGFR drugs in treatment for mCRC was shown to provide satisfactory results of overall survival rate and progression-free survival. The most important result of the analysis is the revealed significant increase in median overall survival from 13.4±1.6 to 18.7±2.3 months (p = 0.04838) in patients who had anti-EGFR therapy and chemotherapy with surgical treatment of distant resectable metastases. Manifestations specific for anti-EGFR drugs dermal toxicity were tolerable and managed with medical correction.Of the patients who has been undergone to cytoreductive surgical interventions for resectable metastases, clinically significant complications of the surgery were observed in 17.2% ofpatients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):66-71
pages 66-71 views

Oncology in Uzbekistan: achievements and perspectives

Navruzov S.N., Alieva D.A.

Abstract

The article describes step by step formation and development of cancer care facilities in the Republic of Uzbekistan. It also presents the current status and perspectives for the development of cancer care for the population in Uzbekistan.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):72-75
pages 72-75 views

Cancer incidence in the Krasnoyarsk Krai

Modestov A.A., Safontsev I.P., Zukov R.A., Slepov E.V., Klimenok M.P., Gaas E.N.

Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of the incidence of malignant tumors in the Krasnoyarsk Krai throughout 2005-2014. The greatest increase in incidence in the region during the study period - 58.5% was determined in women. There was established the gain in the incidence in the region by 39.5%, as well as there was revealed the advancement on leading localizations. On the basis of established trends there was made calculation for medium-term forecast of the morbidity rate in the region. By 2020, there is expected the gain in the incidence in the Krai by 1.5 times: breast cancer - by 17%, skin cancer - by 22%, lung cancer - by 21.6%, prostate cancer - by 19.6%; for gastric cancer incidence rate will decrease by 5.9%.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):76-80
pages 76-80 views

Neuroendocrine tumors of stomach. Modern classification

Peregorodiev I.N., Bokhian V.Y., Delektorskaya V.V., Stilidi I.S.

Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach include a wide range of neoplasm with different variants of the disease, various approaches to the treatment and different prognosis. The incidence is quite low - NETs of stomach accounted for only 9% of all gastrointestinal (GI) NETs and 0,3% of all tumors of stomach. Gastric NETs have significantly different biological and clinical characteristics from other carcinoids developing from “foregut”. The distinctive features of these tumors attract the attention of many scientists. Modern methods of instrumental diagnostics, as well as histological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic, make it possible to assess malignant potential of the tumor and individualize treatment in every case. In this article we have tried to bring the information about NET with high and poor differentiation, which include small and large cell types together.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):81-85
pages 81-85 views

Nutritional problems in patients with digestive tract cancer, possible ways for solutions

Shoykhet Y.N., Galkina O.M., Lazarev A.F.

Abstract

Malignant neoplasms of the digestive system occupy a leading place among all cancer patients. Approximately one third of all cancer deaths worldwide was linked to improper nutrition and diet, and took the second place as theoretically preventable causes of cancer. Modern methods of surgical treatment of cancer patients have an aggressive nature, causing pronounced stress in the body and give rise in metabolic disorders with changes in nutritional status. One of the prevention methods is the use of nutritional support, especially in patients who received radical surgery.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):86-91
pages 86-91 views

Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes: biological essence and clinical significance in breast cancer

Stenina M.B., Tsareva E.V., Zharov A.A., Tyulyandin S.A.

Abstract

In the review there are described the key stages of the development of anti-tumor immune response, as well there are presented the modern data on biological and clinical significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer; there is considered the method ofpathologic assessment of the pronouncement of lymphoid infiltration of the tumor; the results of clinical studies of prognostic and predictive role of immune markers including tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):92-100
pages 92-100 views

Oncology Institute of the Republic of Moldova is 55 years (outlines of history)

Chernat V.F.

Abstract

In chronological order, there is presented the history of the creation of Oncology Service of the Republic of Moldova. There were mentioned most prominent public health leaders who participated in the creation and functioning of the Oncological service. There are described the main achievements and challenges of the service for the future.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):101-104
pages 101-104 views

Short hystory of the study of paraneopastic neurological syndrome

Shnayder N.A., Dykhno Y.A.

Abstract

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) can be defined as remote effects of cancer that are neither caused by the tumor and its metastases, nor by infection, ischemia or metabolic disturbances. The authors presented the lecture highlighting the actuality of the problem and definition of PNS, main part of the article is devoted to the history of the study of PNS in the our country and abroad.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):105-109
pages 105-109 views

David Georgievich Zaridze (on the occasion of his 75th birthday)

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Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):110-111
pages 110-111 views

Elena Yur'evna Zlatnik (on the occasion of her 60th birthday)

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Russian Journal of Oncology. 2016;21(1-2):112-112
pages 112-112 views

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