Vol 22, No 6 (2017)

Articles

TARGETED THERAPY OF NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER PATIENTS: MOST COMMON ADVERSE EVENTS AND METHODS OF THEIR CORRECTIONS

Reutova E.V., Laktionov K.P., Ardzinba M.S.

Abstract

Major advances in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with the targeted therapy. It is both highly effective in the presence of activating mutations in the tumor and generally well-tolerated. Serious adverse events are recorded much less than with chemotherapy. There are significant differences in the toxicity profile. Both early detection and proper and timely correction of complications of targeted therapies are necessary for the successful long-term treatment of metastatic NSCLC patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):300-306
pages 300-306 views

FACTORS DETERMINING THE SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE OF CYTOREDUCTIVE OPERATIONS IN OVARIAN CANCER PATIENTS

Zagashtokov A.Z., Nikogosyan S.O., Levchenco N.E.

Abstract

The article reviews literature data on attempts to create various prognostic models with the goal of optimizing indications for surgical treatment and achieving optimal cytoreductive operations in patients with a common form of ovarian cancer. The data of various authors on the sensitivity and specificity of X-ray methods of investigation, laparoscopy, tumor markers, etc. are given in the diagnosis of the spreading of ovarian cancer and their prognostic value for planning optimal cytoreductive operations. There have been demonstrated created by different authors prognostic models which use a complex approach to the surgical treatment of ovarian cancer, which in addition to diagnosing the spreading of the tumor process consider the functional state of the patient, concomitant diseases, age, hematological biochemical changes in the blood, etc.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):307-312
pages 307-312 views

QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE ELDERLY PATIENTS AFTER SURGERY FOR GASTRIC CANCER

Nered S.N., Stilidi I.S., Rokhoev G.A.

Abstract

The problem of the quality of life of elderly gastric cancer patients after surgical treatment, is still insufficiently studied. Functional results of the management of 91 patients, underwent surgical treatment at the age of 75 years and older, are represented. 35 patients underwent gastrectomy, 56 patients - subtotal distal resection. The quality of life was assessed at the second year after surgery according to both the Performance Scales for the Karnofsky & ECOG Scores, as well as the modified form of EORTC QLQ-STO 22. Only 40% of patients were fully recovered after total gastrectomy and 57.1% of cases - after gastric resection. 28.6% and 35.7% of patients respectively were incapable for full activity and required support. Patients with severe disability and cases needed a significant care amounted to 28.6% and 2.8% in the group of patients after gastrectomy and only 3.6% in the group of cases after the gastric resection. Thus, in elderly patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment, a significant deterioration of the quality of life is observed, and therefore the tactic of minimization of the radical surgical intervention in this age group is reasonable.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):313-315
pages 313-315 views

EXPERIENCE OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOGENIC EPILEPSIA

Dmitrenko D.V., Shnayder N.A., Dykhno Y.A., Dmitrenko A.I., Strotskaya I.G.

Abstract

Epileptic seizures are a common symptom in brain tumor patients. The aim of the study: to investigate the features of oncogenic epilepsy in women of the fertile age. Material and methods. The study included 352 women aged of from 15 to 49 years, suffering from epilepsy. The examination consisted of an EEG and a high-field MRI investigation of the brain (1.5 Tc) with a scan interval of 1-2 mm. Results and discussion. Epilepsy against the background of volumetric brain formations was found in 15/139 (10.8%) patients with symptomatic focal epilepsy. The age of a debut of oncogenic epilepsy ranged from 2 to 38 years, the median was 14 years. Astrocytomas, found in 40% of cases, prevailed in the etiology of volumetric formations. A considerable time interval between the epileptic seizure debut and the high-field MRI examination was noted to result in the diagnosis of volumetric brain formation: median was 10.5 [2; 15] years. In the clinical picture of epilepsy there were dominated simple and complex focal seizures. Secondary-generalized tonic-clonic seizures were stopped in 60% of cases. The pharmacoinduced remission of oncogenic epilepsy was achieved in 3/15 (20%) cases. Conclusion. The low alertness of primary care physicians in terms of diagnosis of neuroncology in women of childbearing age was noted. The therapy of symptomatic oncogenic epilepsy was characterized by certain difficulties, caused by the growth of volume formation and/or gross cicatricial postoperative changes in the brain substance.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):316-321
pages 316-321 views

MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY RATE FROM MALIGNANT TUMORS IN CHILDREN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OVER 2011-2016

Rykov M.Y.

Abstract

Introduction Planning the medical care management for cancer children is based, inter alia, on epidemiological data: morbidity and mortality rates in children with malignant neoplasms. Material and methods. The data of the public health care executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation have been analyzed. These reports included data on morbidity, mortality, one-year mortality rates, and the period of the medical care delivery for children with oncological diseases in subjects. Results. Over past 6 years, the number of primary patients, identified annually (by 2011 - 3230, 2016 - 3875) increased by 20%; the number of patients under observation was increased by 34.8% (2011 - 17,958, 2016 - 24,207). The incidence increased by 9.8%: from 12.2 per 100,000 (0-17 years) in 2011 to 13.4 in 2016. The standardized mortality rate in 2011-2013 was 4 (per 100 thousand. 0-19 years), in 2014-2016 - 3.6 (per 100 thousand. 0-17 years). The one-year mortality rate decreased by 2%: from 10.8% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2016, the number of actively identified patients increased by 1.4% (in 2007 - 3.8%, in 2016 - 5.2%), the one-year mortality rate decreased by 5.9% (2007 - 14.7%, 2016 - 8.8%). Among causes of death the first place was occupied by leukemia, the second one - by tumors of the brain and spinal cord, the third - sarcomas of soft tissues. Conclusion. The noted dynamics demonstrates an increase in the detectability of oncological diseases in children, therefore, it indicates to the improvement of diagnostic methods. Taking into consideration the average world morbidity rate to account of 15 per 100 thousand children, it is possible to forecast a further increase in the incidence (detectability) of up to 4 500 primary patients by 2022. Thus, at present, an annual underreport is about 700(16%) patients. A low percentage of actively identified children shows the insufficient training of primary care physicians (district pediatricians) in pediatric oncology.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):322-328
pages 322-328 views

DYNAMICS OF INCIDENCE RATE AND CAUSES OF THE LATE DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER IN THE ARKHANGELSK REGION IN 2006-2015

Rubtsova Y.V., Mordovsky E.A., Potehina E.F., Gladilina S.V.

Abstract

Gastric cancer (C16) remains one of the most prognostic unfavorable form of malignant neoplasms in Russia, primarily due to its late diagnostics. Aim of this study is to assess the dynamics of the incidence rate of gastric cancer in the Arkhangelsk region in 2006-2015 and to reveal the reasons for its late diagnosis (clinical stage IV). Material end methods. We used the data of population-based cancer registry of the Arkhangelsk region. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the odds ratios of the late diagnosis of gastric cancer (clinical stage IV) from an array of predictors (gender, place of residence, and the patient’s age at diagnosis). Results. The incidence rate of gastric cancer in the Arkhangelsk region in 2006-2015 was higher than in Russia as a whole (36.0-45.3 cases per 100,000 and 25.9-29.4 cases per 100,000 respectively). Every second (43.9%) new case of this neoplasm was revealed at the clinical stage IV. The proportion of these patients was stable in 2006-2015 (from 40.5% to 48.6%). Errors of primary care doctors in Arkhangelsk region were the main reason of the late diagnosis of gastric cancer (61.9%-73.8%). Every third new case of this neoplasm (26.2%-38.1%) was diagnosed at the clinical stage IV due to the low quality of patients’ self-preservation behavior. Patient’s age was associated with the late diagnosis of gastric cancer: every additional year reduced the odds ratio of the outcome for 2-3%. Conclusion. Obtained results determine the elimination of errors in the diagnostic work of primary care doctors (especially strengthening the readiness to diagnose the neoplasms) as an essential condition for the reduction of gastric cancer mortality in the Arkhangelsk region.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):329-334
pages 329-334 views

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BREAST CANCER PREVALENCE RATE OF THE OF URBAN AND RURAL FEMALE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KHAKASSIA

Chernenko O.N., Borisov O.B., Dykhno Y.A.

Abstract

In article the comparative characteristic of a morbidity rate of the breast cancer (BC) of urban and rural female population of the Republic of Khakassia in 1999-2013 is given. The main tendencies of the dynamics of a BC prevalence rate are revealed: the more pronounced gain in the morbidity rate of the urban population (Abakan), the significant growth in the prevalence rate in the female population of districts of the Republic; the increase of the number of cases in working-age women
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):335-339
pages 335-339 views

INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO TRAINING STUDENTS OF THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY TO THE MANUAL METHOD OF THE EXAMINATION OF THE BREAST IN MASTOPATHY AND CANCER

Dykhno Y.A., Kazanceva T.V., Turchina G.E., Archipova G.A.

Abstract

Training future doctors is inextricably linked with the development of manual skills examination of mammary glands. To improve this research there were created videos reflecting stages of the examination on the Phantom and the patient, and the check-list. Overall, this has resulted in not only perfection in the performing such manipulation, but single interpretations of results. Check-list is both used on the outside-and classroom and practical exam of the final appraisal in students, and also was introduced in the work of the Krasnoyarsk regional Clinical Oncology Center.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):340-343
pages 340-343 views

CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF ANTICANCER THERAPY: DEFINITION, ETIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION (PART I)

Vatutin N.T., Sklyannaya E.V., El-Khatib M.A., Taradin G.G.

Abstract

The given review is devoted to the problem of the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Modern cytostatics cause clinically significant manifestations of cardiotoxicity - myocardial injuries, reducing both quality and life expectancy of oncological patients. Many of chemotherapeutic agents can cause cardiovascular complications such as the development of the left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, myocardial ischemia, arterial hypertension, thromboembolism, QT prolongation and arrhythmias. The toxic influence of the most often used chemotherapeutic agents on heart (antimetabolites, alkylating agents, platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, monoclonal antibodies, anthracycline antibiotics, topoisomerase and protein kinase inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents and cytokines) has been described. The results of recent studies on etiology, epidemiology, classification and pathogenesis are presented in the first part of review. Most attention is paid to recent research in pathogenesis of chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity. Given the numerous aspects of cardiotoxicity are not completely studied yet, obviously the further researches are needed in this field.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2017;22(6):345-350
pages 345-350 views

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