Vol 20, No 5 (2015)

Articles

Clinical morphological features of a hereditary breast cancer and their influence on the treatment

Shoykhet Y.N., Lazarev A.F., Gofman A.A., Zadontseva N.S., Lazareva D.G.

Abstract

Objective - to examine the clinical and morphological characteristics of hereditary breast cancer and their impact on the nature of the treatment. Material and methods. A comparative study between women with hereditary forms of breast cancer and sporadic breast cancer. The work is based on information about 727 women. The women were divided into two groups: primary, including 377 women with hereditary forms of breast cancer and a comparison to include 350 women with sporadic breast cancer. Results. Statistically significant differences were obtained by the nature, location, growth receptor status of the tumor site, presence of regional lymph node metastasis by special treatment.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):4-7
pages 4-7 views

Tissue densitometry analysis of spherical formations of lungs on the base of artificial intelligence system in the multispiral computed tomography

Konovalov V.K., Leonov S.L., Shayduk A.M., Lobanov M.N., Kolmogorov V.G., Fedoseev M.A., Borisenko O.V., Modakalova Y.S., Isakov A.E., Vorona O.I., Kazancev M.V., Fedorov V.V., Shoykhet Y.N.

Abstract

Applying modern methodological approaches to inspection, it is not always possible to establish the nature of the spherical formation of lungs (SFL). The way of assessment of internal structure SFL consisting of target volume densitometry, allowed to receive consecutive selections in the allocated zones of interest of values of pixels from files in the DICOM format, to carry out the analysis of distribution of densitometrical density, both to the cut planes, and taking into account various cuts in the allocated volume. The newly developed technology of the densitometrical analysis of spherical formations of lungs on the basis of neural networks, is capable to classify the numerical data obtained from computer tomograms by means of the software «Radiologist +». Sensitivity at division of «primary cancer - infiltrative tuberculosis» made 91.1%, specificity - 88.6%, accuracy - 90.2%. Sensitivity at division of «primary cancer - pneumonia» made 90.4%, specificity - 74.5%, accuracy - 84.2%. Sensitivity at division of «infiltrative tuberculosis - pneumonia» made 79.5%, specificity - 80.8%, accuracy - 80.2%.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):8-12
pages 8-12 views

Effect of protein composite dry mixture on protein metabolism of patients with esophageal cancer

Galkina O.M., Lazarev A.F., Beleninova I.A., Shoykhet Y.N.

Abstract

Esophageal cancer is among five most aggressive tumors in terms of course and prognosis of the disease. The patients who underwent extensive surgery have the risk of malnutrition due to starvation, stress and subsequent occurrence of metabolic disorders. Lack of protein in the body leads to weight loss due to the collapse of muscles and causes development ofprotein-energy malnutrition. One type of insufficient nutrition correction is a diet therapy by modified products. The use of protein composite dry mixture leads to correction of protein deficiency.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):13-18
pages 13-18 views

Endothelial dysfunction and results of its correction at gastric neoplasm

Olzhayev S.T., Shoykhet Y.N., Lazarev A.F.

Abstract

A complex examination of 122 patients with II and III stages of neoplasms were carried out for the purpose of definition of results of correction of disturbances of endothelial functions in operated patients with gastric cancer. All patients were exposed to radical surgical treatment. Endothelium function indicators and contents of circulating endothelial cells were studied. It is revealed that application of L-arginine and ACE inhibitor provides decrease in degree of endothelial dysfunction and damages an endothelium that correlates with decrease in frequency of postoperative complications, late complications in the form of development of recurrence and metastasises and mortality.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):19-22
pages 19-22 views

Drainage of the pelvic cavity through retroperitoneal space during operations on the pelvic organs

Ahmetzyanov F.S., Egorov V.I., Shaychutdinov N.T., Ahmetzyanova F.F., Ahmetzyanova A.F.

Abstract

Types of drains and drainage methods after abdominal operations are fundamental in the prevention and treatment of postoperative complications. History of surgery is firmly linked with the development of drainage. Passive drains are used for cavity drainage in most cases. The authors describe history of drains and drainage methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents technical specifications developed by the authors and their method of drainage installation of the retroperitoneal pelvic cavity after operations on the pelvic organs. The results demonstrate efficiency of the developed method for draining pelvic cavity on the basis of studies of a large number of patients.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):22-27
pages 22-27 views

Case report: multiple synchronous primary tumors in a 3-year-old child

Kazantsev A.P., Hizhnikov A.V., Kerimov P.A., Rubansky M.A., Rubanskay M.V., Kapkova O.A., Rybakova D.V., Nechushkina I.V., Boichenko E.I., Romantsova O.M.

Abstract

Clinical case. In the Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology a 3-year-old boy underwent comprehensive examination, including modern methods of radiological diagnostics and morphological studies. The diagnosis was proved as multiple synchronous primary tumor: 1) Miksofibrosarkoma of soft tissue of the anterior chest wall, stage I. T1N0M0. 2) Neuroblastoma of the pelvis, stage I by INSS. We performed radical surgical treatment. According to the protocols of treatment we performed all necessary additional studies to identify risk group for each tumor. The tumors showed low risk. The patient needed no special treatment. Results. Following the postoperative period the child is being under dynamic monitoring. At present the patient is alive without evidence of recurrence or disease progression. Conclusions. Morphological verification of diagnosis at the initial stage of treatment is important for determining treatment strategy. Current approaches to the definition of risk for cancer can achieve good results without undue intensification of treatment.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):28-31
pages 28-31 views

Long-term trastuzumab biotherapy of a breast cancer patient

Volodina L.N., Kulikov E.P., Grigoryev A.V., Bublokova M.P., Zhuravleva O.P., Chernova V.V., Kolobaeva R.E., Sashina E.L., Sonina L.A., Mertsalov S.A., Mirchetich A.S., Vinogradov I.Y., Kholchev M.Y.

Abstract

The paper describes a clinical case of long-term Trastuzumab biotherapy of a patient with HER2-positive breast cancer. The patient with morphology confirmed HER2+ breast cancer has received Trastuzumab therapy over 9 years. CT data proved complete resorption of metastases in the lungs. No adverse events, which could limit trastuzumab treatment, were noted. The clinical case illustrates effective long-term Trastuzumab therapy of a patient with metastatic HER2+ breast cancer.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):31-33
pages 31-33 views

Multidisciplinary approach to treatment of advanced gastric cancer

Trusilova E.V., Besova N.S., Khokhlova S.V., Gorbunova V.A., Nered S.N., Stilidi I.S.

Abstract

This arcticle presents possibilities of combined treatment of a patient with advanced gastric cancer. The patient with gastric cancer and hepatic, paragastric and left supraclavicular metastases was treated by chemotherapy. 8 courses of chemotherapy by docetaxel + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin resulted in complete regression of distant metastases. This allowed conducting D2 subtotal gastric resection in the patient. Morphologic examination of the tissue samples obtained during surgery identified a low-differetiated gastric adenocarcinoma infiltrating gastric wall to the subserous layer. No metastases were detected in locoregional lymph nodes. Adjuvant chemotherapy was discontinued after 2 courses because of increasing neuropathy. Over the follow up period no disease progression has been registered by April 2015. The overall survival reached 67 months. Thus, combined treatment of the patient resulted in increased overall survival.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):33-36
pages 33-36 views

Remission of invasive CTG secreting macroadenocarcinoma of hipophisis with pituitary apoplexy after transsphenoidal adenomectomy

Mahkamov K.E., Azizov M.M.

Abstract

We describe a rare case of remission of acromegaly as a consequence of hemorrhage to pituitary adenoma and subarachnoid space (pituitary apoplexy), before transnasal transsphenoidal removal of somatoprolactinomas.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):36-39
pages 36-39 views

Features of trans-arterial embolization with large microspheres of rats and rabbits

Jakunina M.N., Fadeev A.S., Kalishjan M.S., Treshalina E.M., Dolgushin M.B.

Abstract

Studying of large microspheres (MS) from polyvinyl alcohol with the diameter of (d) of 0.2-0.6 mm in the infusional volume of 0.4-0.9 ml is directed for detection of their features necessary for preclinical study with surgical access to a femoral artery. Two problems were solved: development of trans-arterial (t.a.) technique introductions to rats and efficiency assessment t.a. embolization on rabbits. Experiments on the rats under general anesthesia are made with d=0.2-0.3 mm of MS. For preclinical study of the technique on rats with the body weight of 120-150 g, infusional system with catheter of G26 and period of observation within 7 days allowing to control efficiency of embolization of tumor intertwined in the blood supply zone is recommended. Experiments on rabbits under general anesthesia are made with MS diameter of 0.4-0.6 mm of MS. By means of X-ray contrast visualization decrease in intensity of a regional blood-stream is shown expressed up to full and long (not less than 14 days) for all of the volumes of MS. The best results of embolization are received with G20 catheter in infusion system. Local trophic changes under the influence of MS (side effects) are regarded as modeling artifact on rabbits connected with full switch off of blood-groove in rather small vessel and violation of innervation of the extremity. The analysis of the revealed features with selection of adequate characteristics of the ISS and tools reached efficiency and complications of trans-arterial embolization allows to recommend the fulfilled technique on rats for preclinical study of large ISS from polyvinyl alcohol, and to consider LMS perspective for trans-arterial embolization or chemoembolization of tumor.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):40-43
pages 40-43 views

Survival of women with cancer in Samara region

Egorova A.G., Orlov A.E., Suslin S.A.

Abstract

Analysis of the survival of women with cancer was performed to assess effectiveness of cancer control programs in Samara region in 2003-2012. The calculation of the results involved a dynamic (actuarial) method based on the tables of survivorship. The study showed that Samara region has high quality health care for women with cancer because all survival parameters in most cancers have stable and reliable positive trends. Moreover positive trends are registered for the results of relative survival, though they were less significant and so far unreliable. This suggests further development and improvement of health care for women with cancer. Implementation of a target program “Development of Health care in Samara region in 2014-2020” includes practical realization of innovative organizational decisions on the basis of new technologies offered by basic science and tested in some developed countries.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):44-50
pages 44-50 views

Training of doctors of various specialties for installation of venous access in children with cancer

Rykov M.Y., Susuleva N.A., Polyakov V.G.

Abstract

The article summarizes five years of experience teaching doctors of various specialties for implantation of venous port systems in children with cancer. Material and methods. In 2010-2014 we conducted a training technique of implantation of venous port systems for 65 doctors. Of these, 27 (41.5%) were trained in the courses of the International School of Postgraduate Education “Aesculap-Academy”, and 38 (58.5%) - at the Department of Pediatric Oncology GBOU DPO RMAPO the Ministry of Health. The training was conducted at the institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology. Results. The total number of students who have mastered the technique of 13 people (48.1%) of which 9 (69.2%) Anaesthetist and 4 (30.7%) of pediatric surgery. However, only 3 (23%) with certificates doctor - Anaesthetist, mastered one conducting courses implantation technique using ECG monitoring. From mastered the technique of only 3 people (2 Anaesthetist and 1 Surgeon) expressed confidence that will be able to be implanted venous port system in the presence of an experienced assistant. Conclusion. It is necessary to upgrade the training of doctors at the level of postgraduate education and reform program training courses for working professionals.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):50-52
pages 50-52 views

Prevalence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms with involvement of thoracic organs

Karpov V.M., Lazarev A.F.

Abstract

The paper presents a review of literature dealing with the problem of multiple primary malignant neoplasms with involvement of thoracic organs. Variations of polyneoplasia in combination with lung cancer, esophageal carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma are considered. The article analyzes the specific features of this pathology development, similarities and differences in the results of previous investigators. Taking into consideration the proved exogenous influence in the cancer origin the study of regional features is of interest and aimed at epidemiological situation improvement.
Russian Journal of Oncology. 2015;20(5):53-56
pages 53-56 views

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